Liquidity as an Insurance Problem
AbstractRisk-averse individuals wish that assets concentrate their payoffs in states of high marginal value (that is, highly likely or low endowment states). An asset or portfolio may fail to do so, by having payoffs uncorrelated to its owner needs or, even worse, by having them inversely related. The latter, which we call tier 1 illiquidity, is shown to occur in non-Walrasian markets (where a trade involves bargaining) and in incomplete Walrasian markets where optimal trading strategies are non trivial. In both cases, the high valuation of the trader biases the equilibrium price against him. The former, which we call tier 2 illiquidity, is shown to arise when individual shocks are privately observed, because moral hazard prevents contracting on them. Diamond and Dybvig (1983) and Holmström and Tirole (1998) present prominent examples of tier 2 illiquidity. However, a self-insurance model is offered to argue that the importance of this type of illiquidity is limited from a welfare perspective, provided individuals are patient enough and can trade in a perfectly competitive, complete—except for individual-level uncertainty— set of asset markets. This article characterizes an asset’s liquidity as the degree of insurance it provides, thereby identifying the basic economic problem behind liquidity as one of the familiar risk-sharing kind. It also shows, by means of examples, that the problem arises when asset markets are imperfectly competitive, incomplete, or both.
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Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Instituto de Economia. Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile. in its series Documentos de Trabajo with number 198.
Date of creation: 2001
Date of revision:
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- G10 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - General (includes Measurement and Data)
- D83 - Microeconomics - - Information, Knowledge, and Uncertainty - - - Search, Learning, and Information
- G22 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Insurance; Insurance Companies; Actuarial Studies
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- Felipe Zurita, 2007.
"Liquidity and Market Incompleteness,"
Documentos de Trabajo
318, Instituto de Economia. Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile..
- Felipe Zurita, 2003. "Liquidity and Financial Markets - Introduction," Latin American Journal of Economics-formerly Cuadernos de Economía, Instituto de Economía. Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile., vol. 40(121), pages 725-727.
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