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開発途上国におけるコミュニティ動員型開発と集計的ショック:パキスタンのngoの事例より(ロングバージョン)

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  • 黒崎, 卓
  • ハーン, ヒダヤット・ウッラー
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    Abstract

    開発途上国の家計は、集計的な経済ショックによってマイナス成長が生じた場合に、生活水準を顕著に低下させてしまう可能性が強い。コミュニティ動員型開発(community-based development: CBD)は、そのような場合に生活水準低下を緩和する効果があるのか、効果があるのはどのような条件の場合なのか? 本稿は、CBDを進めてきたパキスタンのNGOを事例に、3か年約600家計のパネルデータを用い、この問いを実証的に検討する。分析結果から、非メンバー家計と比較した場合に全体としては集計的ショックを緩和する効果がなかったことが判明した。ただし、同じ村内での非メンバー家計へのスピルオーバー効果ゆえに、メンバーがいない村との比較では集計的ショック緩和効果があった可能性も示唆された。また、ショック緩和効果が異質である可能性を考慮し、住民組織の特徴や活動分野を取り入れた分析からは、小規模インフラ建設型介入、マイクロクレジット供与の場合などに緩和効果が検出された。CBD型介入が集計的ショックの悪影響を緩和するかどうかは、介入の性格や、地域における市場の失敗との対応に依存する可能性が示唆される。, This paper empirically investigates whether a community-based development (CBD) approach is effective in mitigating the ill-effect of aggregate shocks. The analysis is based on a three-year panel dataset of approximately 600 households in rural Pakistan where a local NGO has implemented CBD interventions. Results show that the mitigating effect was absent when the control group includes both non-member households in villages under CBD interventions and households in villages without such interventions. On the other hand, a strong spillover effect within the former types of villages from member to non-member households was found, mitigating the ill-effects of aggregate shocks. Furthermore, CBD interventions accompanied by micro infrastructure construction or microcredit provision were found effective in mitigating the ill-effects. These results indicate a possibility that whether a CBD approach mitigates aggregate shocks depends on the type of interventions and the nature of market failures.

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    File URL: http://hermes-ir.lib.hit-u.ac.jp/rs/bitstream/10086/26094/1/wp2013-7.pdf
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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by Center for Economic Institutions, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University in its series CEI Working Paper Series with number 2013-07.

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    Length: 46, 14p
    Date of creation: Jan 2014
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    Handle: RePEc:hit:hitcei:2013-07

    Note: Community-Based Development and Aggregate Shocks in Developing Countries: The Experience of an NGO in Pakistan
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