Malthus in Rwanda? Scarcity, Survival and Causes of the Genocide
AbstractThis paper does two things. First, it develops a game theoretical model over population groups that optimize their survival under resource scarce conditions. The model includes two rather obvious, but in the theoretical literature neglected, strategies - survival by migration and, once a conflict is ignited, survival by taking refuge. Results include determinants of migration and refugee flows, the threshold for violent conflict and its intensity. Second, it derives the necessary and sufficient conditions for a genocide and applies the model in order to analyze the 1994 genocide in Rwanda. It suggests that the extremist regime that seized power on April 6th 1994, while being on a genocide agenda exploited the underlying resource scarce conditions by way of forcefully destroying property rights and massively support appropriative actions, thereby facilitating the killings and persecutions of Tutsis on the scale of a genocide. Finally, key to understanding the scope of the genocide in 1994, is suggested to be that the extremist regime was not only the active support of appropriative actions, but the simultaneous and deliberate destroying of the refugee infrastructure. The difference in the level of refugee infrastucture can possibly explain why earlier violent episodes had lower conflict intensity although sharing some similar characteristics.
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Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by University of Gothenburg, Department of Economics in its series Working Papers in Economics with number 201.
Length: 29 pages
Date of creation: 28 Mar 2006
Date of revision: 31 Aug 2006
Contact details of provider:
Postal: Department of Economics, School of Business, Economics and Law, University of Gothenburg, Box 640, SE 405 30 GÖTEBORG, Sweden
Phone: 031-773 10 00
Web page: http://www.handels.gu.se/econ/
More information through EDIRC
Genocide; Conflict; Rwanda; Resource Scarcity; Malthus;
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- D74 - Microeconomics - - Analysis of Collective Decision-Making - - - Conflict; Conflict Resolution; Alliances
- N47 - Economic History - - Government, War, Law, International Relations, and Regulation - - - Africa; Oceania
- Q29 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Renewable Resources and Conservation - - - Other
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- Isaksson, Ann-Sofie, 2011. "Unequal Property Rights: A study of land right inequalities in Rwanda," Working Papers in Economics 507, University of Gothenburg, Department of Economics.
- Isaksson, Ann-Sofie, 2011.
"Manipulating the rural landscape: Villagisation and income generation in Rwanda,"
Working Papers in Economics
510, University of Gothenburg, Department of Economics.
- Ann-Sofie Isaksson, 2013. "Manipulating the Rural Landscape: Villagisation and Income Generation in Rwanda," Journal of African Economies, Centre for the Study of African Economies (CSAE), vol. 22(3), pages 394-436, June.
- Willa Friedman, 2013. "Local Economic Conditions and Participation in the Rwandan Genocide," HiCN Working Papers 160, Households in Conflict Network.
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