Should consumer expenditures be the scale variable in empirical money demand equations?
AbstractTraditionally, real GNP or permanent income or wealth have been the scale variable of choice in empirical money demand equations. Recently, Mankiw and Summers (1986) argue that consumer expenditures are an ideal proxy for permanent income in money demand, and they provide evidence that total consumption expenditures or consumption expenditures on non-durables and services are better scale variables in money demand than current GNP. This result is odd because consumer expenditures reflect only the desires of the households, and a significant proportion of money balances is held by firms. This paper shows the difficulties in using consumer expenditures as a proxy for permanent income, shows that, properly estimated and compared, consumer expenditures are no better as a scale variable than real GNP and provides evidence that permanent income is a better scale variable than either consumer expenditures or GNP.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis in its series Working Papers with number 1988-003.
Date of creation: 1988
Date of revision:
You can help add them by filling out this form.
CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
- Pitterle, Ingo A. & Steffen, Dirk, 2004. "Welfare effects of fiscal policy under alternative exchange rate regimes: the role of the scale variable of money demand," MPRA Paper 13047, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised Oct 2004.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Anna Xiao).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.