Did risk-based capital allocate bank credit and cause a credit crunch in the U.S.?
AbstractThis paper examines the reallocation of bank credit from loans to securities in the early 1990s using data on virtually all U.S. banks from 1979 to 1992. The spectacular increase in bank and thrift failures in the 1980s raised concerns about depository institution risk and spurred interest in public policy prescriptions to reduce this risk. One of these pre-scriptions was the Basle Accord on risk-based capital, which mandates that international banks operating in the major industrialized nations hold capital in proportion to their perceived credit risks. Because capital is more expensive to raise than insured deposits, risk-based capital (RBC) may be viewed as a regulatory tax that is higher on assets in categories that are assigned higher risk weights. Therefore, it would be expected that implementation of RBC would encourage substitution out of assets in the 100% risk category, such as commercial loans, and into assets in the 0% risk category, such as Treasury securities. Thus, the allocation of credit away from commercial loans may have caused a "credit crunch," which the authors define as a significant reduction in the supply of credit available to commercial borrowers. Consistent with these expectations, U.S. banks did reduce their commercial loans and increase their holdings of Treasuries in the early 1990s. A number of alternative explanations for this change in bank behavior have been offered. The authors suggest several other hypotheses including the leverage credit crunch hypothesis reflecting banks' interest in reducing their required leverage capital ratio; the loan examination credit crunch hypothesis reflecting the more rigorous examination process which encouraged substitution into safe assets; the voluntary risk retrenchment credit crunch hypothesis reflecting management's voluntary substitution of safer assets to lower the cost of funding and reduce the risk of bankruptcy; and the macro/regional demand-side hypo-thesis reflecting the redu
Download InfoTo our knowledge, this item is not available for download. To find whether it is available, there are three options:
1. Check below under "Related research" whether another version of this item is available online.
2. Check on the provider's web page whether it is in fact available.
3. Perform a search for a similarly titled item that would be available.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.) in its series Finance and Economics Discussion Series with number 93-41.
Date of creation: 1993
Date of revision:
Other versions of this item:
- Allen Berger & Gregory Udell, 1994. "Did Risk-Based Capital Allocate Bank Credit and Cause a `Credit Crunch' in the U.S.?," Center for Financial Institutions Working Papers 94-07, Wharton School Center for Financial Institutions, University of Pennsylvania.
You can help add them by filling out this form.
CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
- Laeven, Luc & Majnoni, Giovanni, 2001.
"Loan loss provisioning and economic slowdowns : too much, too late?,"
Policy Research Working Paper Series
2749, The World Bank.
- Laeven, Luc & Majnoni, Giovanni, 2003. "Loan loss provisioning and economic slowdowns: too much, too late?," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 12(2), pages 178-197, April.
- Luc Laeven & Giovanni Majnoni, 2002. "Loan loss provisioning and economic slowdowns: too much too late?," Conference Series ; [Proceedings], Federal Reserve Bank of Boston.
- Robert DeYoung & Anne Gron & Andrew Winton, 2005. "Risk overhang and loan portfolio decisions," Working Paper Series WP-05-04, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
- Steven R. Grenadier & Brian J. Hall, 1995. "Risk-Based Capital Standards and the Riskiness of Bank Portfolios: Credit and Factor Risks," NBER Working Papers 5178, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Onur Ozgur, 2005.
"A Model of Dynamic Liquidity Contracts,"
- Joe Peek & Eric S. Rosengren, 1997. "How well capitalized are well-capitalized banks?," New England Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, issue Sep, pages 41-50.
- Bhaumik, Sumon Kumar & Piesse, Jenifer, 2008.
"Does lending behaviour of banks in emerging economies vary by ownership? Evidence from the Indian banking sector,"
Elsevier, vol. 32(2), pages 177-196, June.
- Sumon Kumar Bhaumik & Jenifer Piesse, 2006. "Does lending behaviour of banks in emerging economies vary by ownership? Evidence from the Indian banking sector," CEDI Discussion Paper Series 06-01, Centre for Economic Development and Institutions(CEDI), Brunel University.
- Anthony M Santomero & David L. Eckles, 2000. "The Determinants Of Success In the New Financial Services Environment: Now That Firms Can Do Everything, What Should They Do And Why Should Regulators Care?," Center for Financial Institutions Working Papers 00-32, Wharton School Center for Financial Institutions, University of Pennsylvania.
- Abhiman Das & Ashok K. Nag, 2004. "Credit Growth and Response to Capital Requirements: Evidence from Indian Public Sector Banks," Industrial Organization 0411003, EconWPA.
- Allen N. Berger & Gregory F. Udell, 2002.
"Small Business Credit Availability and Relationship Lending: The Importance of Bank Organisational Structure,"
Royal Economic Society, vol. 112(477), pages F32-F53, February.
- Allen N. Berger & Gregory F. Udell, 2001. "Small business credit availability and relationship lending: the importance of bank organizational structure," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2001-36, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
- Coffinet, Jérôme & Coudert, Virginie & Pop, Adrian & Pouvelle, Cyril, 2012. "Two-way interplays between capital buffers and credit growth: Evidence from French banks," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 22(5), pages 1110-1125.
- Paul Calem & Rafael Rob, .
""The Impact of Capital-Based Regulation on Bank Risk-Taking: A Dynamic Model'',"
CARESS Working Papres
97-16, University of Pennsylvania Center for Analytic Research and Economics in the Social Sciences.
- Paul S. Calem & Rafael Rob, 1996. "The impact of capital-based regulation on bank risk-taking: a dynamic model," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 96-12, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
- R. Glenn Hubbard & Kenneth N. Kuttner & Darius N. Palia, 1999.
"Are there "bank effects" in borrowers' costs of funds? Evidence from a matched sample of borrowers and banks,"
78, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
- Hubbard, R Glenn & Kuttner, Kenneth N & Palia, Darius N, 2002. "Are There Bank Effects in Borrowers' Costs of Funds? Evidence from a Matched Sample of Borrowers and Banks," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 75(4), pages 559-81, October.
- öZGÜR, Onur, 2011. "A Model of Dynamic Liquidity Contracts," Cahiers de recherche 07-2011, Centre interuniversitaire de recherche en économie quantitative, CIREQ.
- Franz R. Hahn, 2002. "The Effects of Bank Capital on Bank Credit Creation. Panel Evidence from Austria," WIFO Working Papers 188, WIFO.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Kris Vajs) The email address of this maintainer does not seem to be valid anymore. Please ask Kris Vajs to update the entry or send us the correct address.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.