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Pensent-ils différemment ? La "voix des pauvres" à travers les enquêtes statistiques

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Author Info

  • Mireille Razafindrakoto

    ()
    (DIAL, IRD, Paris)

  • François Roubaud

    ()
    (DIAL, IRD, Paris)

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    Abstract

    (English) The lack of success of past strategies in reducing poverty has raised doubts as to whether these strategies were really an appropriate response to the needs of impoverished populations. Bearing in mind the aims of the new generation of development programmes to "empower" the poor, representative opinion polls combined with quantitative statistical surveys can be an innovative and effective way of hearing and relaying the "voice of the poor", so that they can affect decisionmaking and influence policy. This method was applied empirically, drawing on an exceptionally rich corpus of household surveys carried out in the capital of Madagascar. First, analysis of living conditions shows an accumulation of handicaps among the poorest - difficulty of finding employment, low access to human and physical capital, vulnerability, poor integration in social life, besides the various forms of deprivation – which even further reduce their chance of rising out of poverty. Second, based on views expressed on a wide range of themes such as economic reform, liberalisation and democracy, it emerges that, on many issues, the opinions of the poor do not differ fundamentally from those of the population as a whole. The specificity of the poor’s message lies in their strong "need for the State". _________________________________ (français) Les résultats peu probants des stratégies passées en termes de réduction de la pauvreté ont conduit à se demander si elles répondaient effectivement aux besoins des populations démunies. Suivant l'objectif de la nouvelle génération de programmes d'accroître la participation et le pouvoir des pauvres ("empowerment"), les enquêtes d’opinions, quantitatives et statistiques, constituent un instrument original et efficace, pour écouter et relayer la "voix des pauvres" afin qu'ils puissent influer sur l'orientation des politiques. Cette méthode a été appliquée de façon empirique en tirant parti d’un corpus d’enquêtes auprès des ménages exceptionnellement riches, réalisées dans la capitale malgache. En premier lieu, l'analyse des conditions de vie démontre l'accumulation de handicaps chez les plus démunis - difficultés d'accès à l'emploi, au capital humain et physique, vulnérabilité, moindre insertion dans la vie de la société, en plus des différentes formes de privations - qui réduit d'autant leur chance de sortir de la pauvreté. En second lieu, en s’appuyant sur les opinions exprimées dans différents registres thématiques (réformes économiques, libéralisation, démocratie), il apparaît que, dans de nombreux domaines, le point de vue des pauvres ne diffère pas fondamentalement de celui de l’ensemble de la population. La spécificité du message formulé par les pauvres réside dans le fort « besoin d’Etat » qu’ils manifestent.

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    File URL: http://www.dial.ird.fr/media/ird-sites-d-unites-de-recherche/dial/documents/publications/doc_travail/2001/2001-13
    File Function: First version, 2001
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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by DIAL (Développement, Institutions et Mondialisation) in its series Working Papers with number DT/2001/13.

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    Length: 42 pages
    Date of creation: 2001
    Date of revision:
    Handle: RePEc:dia:wpaper:dt200113

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    Related research

    Keywords: Enquêtes statistiques; pauvreté; réformes économiques; rôle de l’Etat; transition démocratique; opinion (« voix »); Statistical survey; poverty; economic reform; role of the State; democratic transition; voice.;

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