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El gas de La Guajira y sus efectos económicos sobre el departamento

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  • Andrés Sánchez Jabba

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Abstract

Los campos de gas en La Guajira suministran cerca del 66% del gas de Colombia, lo que refleja la importancia de éstos para atender las necesidades energéticas del país. Sin embargo, a nivel regional, el impacto de esta actividad sobre el desarrollo y el crecimiento económico ha sido limitado debido a la naturaleza extractiva de la actividad, la cual se podría clasificar como una economía de enclave, ya que los datos indican que la producción de gas en La Guajira no ha generado encadenamientos productivos que permitan potenciar el crecimiento económico del departamento. En ese sentido, la principal contribución de la extracción de gas a la economía guajira se limita a las regalías pagadas a favor de sus entidades territoriales. No obstante, dichas regalías no parecen haberse traducido en mejoras del bienestar social de la población local debido a aspectos relacionados con la corrupción e ineficiencia en la ejecución de los ingresos. Por el contrario, lo que se evidencia es una alta dependencia hacia estos recursos por parte de los entes territoriales, favoreciendo así, la pereza en la generación y diversificación de recursos fiscales. Adicionalmente, las tendencias decrecientes en la producción permiten pronosticar problemas asociados a la capacidad de abastecimiento del recurso y la aparición de déficits fiscales relacionados con las reducciones de los ingresos de regalías. El estudio concluye que la promoción y desarrollo formal de otros sectores, entre los cuales se encuentran el turístico y comercial, constituye un mecanismo apropiado para aumentar los ingresos fiscales y prevenir la formación de déficits futuros. ABSTRACT: Gas sites at La Guajira supply nearly 66% of Colombia´s gas consumption, which reflects the importance of these operations in securing energy needs nationwide. However, at a regional scale, the impact of this activity on economic growth and development has been limited or nonexistent as a result of its extractive nature. Data suggests that this activity has not generated productive chains which favour regional economic growth. Therefore, gas extraction constitutes an enclave economy which characterizes itself by operating as a self sufficient and isolated branch with the regional economy. The main contribution of gas extraction towards economic performance of La Guajira consists of royalties paid in favour of local municipalities and states. Nonetheless, such royalties do not seem to have translated themselves in increases of social welfare due to aspects related to corruption and inefficiency. Moreover, the reliance upon these revenues has become increasingly evident and suggests the appearance of a future fiscal deficit associated with decreasing production trends, high transfer dependency and a narrowed fiscal base, which in turn represents a considerable threat not only to public finances, but also to gas provision at a national scale. The study concludes that promotion and development of formal tourism and commerce constitutes an appropriate mechanism in order to increase fiscal revenues and prevent the aforementioned deficit

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by BANCO DE LA REPÚBLICA - ECONOMÍA REGIONAL in its series DOCUMENTOS DE TRABAJO SOBRE ECONOMÍA REGIONAL with number 008700.

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Date of creation: 17 May 2011
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Handle: RePEc:col:000102:008700

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Keywords: Gas natural; La Guajira; encadenamientos productivos; regalías.;

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