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Quantifying and Modeling Long-Range Cross-Correlations in Multiple Time Series with Applications to World Stock Indices

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  • Duan Wang
  • Boris Podobnik
  • Davor Horvati\'c
  • H. Eugene Stanley
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    Abstract

    We propose a modified time lag random matrix theory in order to study time lag cross-correlations in multiple time series. We apply the method to 48 world indices, one for each of 48 different countries. We find long-range power-law cross-correlations in the absolute values of returns that quantify risk, and find that they decay much more slowly than cross-correlations between the returns. The magnitude of the cross-correlations constitute "bad news" for international investment managers who may believe that risk is reduced by diversifying across countries. We find that when a market shock is transmitted around the world, the risk decays very slowly. We explain these time lag cross-correlations by introducing a global factor model (GFM) in which all index returns fluctuate in response to a single global factor. For each pair of individual time series of returns, the cross-correlations between returns (or magnitudes) can be modeled with the auto-correlations of the global factor returns (or magnitudes). We estimate the global factor using principal component analysis, which minimizes the variance of the residuals after removing the global trend. Using random matrix theory, a significant fraction of the world index cross-correlations can be explained by the global factor, which supports the utility of the GFM. We demonstrate applications of the GFM in forecasting risks at the world level, and in finding uncorrelated individual indices. We find 10 indices are practically uncorrelated with the global factor and with the remainder of the world indices, which is relevant information for world managers in reducing their portfolio risk. Finally, we argue that this general method can be applied to a wide range of phenomena in which time series are measured, ranging from seismology and physiology to atmospheric geophysics.

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    File URL: http://arxiv.org/pdf/1102.2240
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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by arXiv.org in its series Papers with number 1102.2240.

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    Date of creation: Feb 2011
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    Handle: RePEc:arx:papers:1102.2240

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    Web page: http://arxiv.org/

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    Cited by:
    1. Sandoval, Leonidas & Franca, Italo De Paula, 2012. "Correlation of financial markets in times of crisis," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 391(1), pages 187-208.
    2. Kang, Sang Hoon & Cheong, Chongcheul & Yoon, Seong-Min, 2011. "Structural changes and volatility transmission in crude oil markets," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 390(23), pages 4317-4324.
    3. Liu, Li & Wan, Jieqiu, 2011. "A study of correlations between crude oil spot and futures markets: A rolling sample test," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 390(21), pages 3754-3766.
    4. Sornette, Didier & Woodard, Ryan & Yan, Wanfeng & Zhou, Wei-Xing, 2013. "Clarifications to questions and criticisms on the Johansen–Ledoit–Sornette financial bubble model," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 392(19), pages 4417-4428.
    5. Xiao, Weilin & Zhang, Weiguo & Xu, Weijun & Zhang, Xili, 2012. "The valuation of equity warrants in a fractional Brownian environment," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 391(4), pages 1742-1752.
    6. Siokis, Fotios M., 2013. "Multifractal analysis of stock exchange crashes," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 392(5), pages 1164-1171.
    7. Kantar, Ersin & Keskin, Mustafa, 2013. "The relationships between electricity consumption and GDP in Asian countries, using hierarchical structure methods," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 392(22), pages 5678-5684.
    8. Caetano, Marco Antonio Leonel & Yoneyama, Takashi, 2012. "A method for detection of abrupt changes in the financial market combining wavelet decomposition and correlation graphs," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 391(20), pages 4877-4882.
    9. Sun, Lin, 2013. "Pricing currency options in the mixed fractional Brownian motion," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 392(16), pages 3441-3458.
    10. Zhuang, Xiaoyang & Wei, Yu & Zhang, Bangzheng, 2014. "Multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis of carbon and crude oil markets," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 399(C), pages 113-125.
    11. Delignières, Didier & Marmelat, Vivien, 2014. "Strong anticipation and long-range cross-correlation: Application of detrended cross-correlation analysis to human behavioral data," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 394(C), pages 47-60.
    12. Ma, Feng & Wei, Yu & Huang, Dengshi, 2013. "Multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis between the Chinese stock market and surrounding stock markets," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 392(7), pages 1659-1670.
    13. Wang, Gang-Jin & Xie, Chi & Chen, Shou & Yang, Jiao-Jiao & Yang, Ming-Yan, 2013. "Random matrix theory analysis of cross-correlations in the US stock market: Evidence from Pearson’s correlation coefficient and detrended cross-correlation coefficient," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 392(17), pages 3715-3730.
    14. Gil-Alana, Luis A. & Cunado, Juncal & de Gracia, Fernando Perez, 2013. "Salient features of dependence in daily US stock market indices," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 392(15), pages 3198-3212.
    15. Lin, Xiaoqiang & Tang, Zhenpeng & Fei, Fangyu, 2013. "Testing for relationships between Shanghai and Shenzhen stock markets: A threshold cointegration perspective," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 392(18), pages 4064-4074.

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