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Usinas De Biodiesel E Falhas No Mercado De Leilões

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  • Lima, Luiz Carlos Oliveira
  • Rodrigues, Felipe Aleixo
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    Abstract

    O trabalho tem por objetivo descrever e analisar as falhas de mercado no sistema de produção agroindustrial do biodiesel constituído por todos os participantes envolvidos na produção da matéria-prima agrícola, no processamento e na distribuição do produto. Incluem o suprimento dos produtores de matéria-prima, os produtores de matérias-primas, operações de estocagens, processamento, atacado e varejo. Incluem as instituições que afetam e coordenam os estágios sucessivos do fluxo do produto, tais como governo, associações e mercado de leilões. As relações contratuais são apontadas como importantes mecanismos de coordenação nos sistemas de mercadorias. No caso do sistema de produção do biodiesel brasileiro, o mecanismo de coordenação observado é o mercado de leilões, que estabelece a quase-integração mediante contratos entre as usinas e os distribuidores. O mercado de leilões de biodiesel é o mercado em que os produtos das usinas são vendidos e comprados por meio de processos formais de licitação. Esse mecanismo de coordenação tem apresentado as mesmas características dos mercados com problemas de informações assimétricas. Nessa situação, o comprador e o vendedor possuem informações diferentes sobre uma transação. Tendo como conseqüência a ineficiência de mercado. Uma forma de falha de mercado decorrente de informações assimétricas observado no mercado de leilões de biodiesel tem sido a seleção adversa e o risco moral. Isto significa que contratos que foram firmados com usinas de biodiesel que participaram de processos de licitações não estão sendo honrados de forma generalizada.--------------------------------------------------The present study aims at describing and analyzing the biodiesel agroindustrial productive chain built up with all components involved in the production, processing and the good marketing. It includes the supplying of the raw-material producers, stocking operations, processing system, the whole and retail market of the product. Institutions that affect and coordinate the successive stages of the product flow such as government, associations and the auctions market are also included. Contractual relations are referred to important coordination structures in the commodity system. In the particular case of the Brazilian biodiesel, the structure of coordination that is observed is the auctions market. Auctions are that marketplace in which the products are bought and sold through formal processes of licitation. Such mechanism presents the same characteristics of the markets with unequal information. In such situation, the buyer and the seller have different information about a transaction; as a result, there is a deviation in the market efficiency level. A kind of a market failure which results from unequal information seen in the auctions market has been the adverse selection. It means that contracts had been signed with biodiesel plants which took part in the licitation processes are not being fulfilled.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by Sociedade Brasileira de Economia, Administracao e Sociologia Rural (SOBER) in its series 46th Congress, July 20-23, 2008, Rio Branco, Acre, Brasil with number 109454.

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    Date of creation: Jul 2008
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    Handle: RePEc:ags:sbrfsr:109454

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    Keywords: Biodiesel; cadeia produtiva; mecanismo de coordenação e falhas de mercado; Biodiesel; productive chain; coordination structure and market failures; Agribusiness; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy;

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