The Impact of Non-tariff Barriers on Trade: The Gravity Model on Turkish Agri-Food Products
AbstractThe competition between the U.S. and the E.U. agricultural subsidies during 1980s decreased the world prices in agricultural and food markets but caused an extensive distortion in the international trade of agricultural and food products. Under these circumstances, World Trade Organization (WTO) was founded in 1995 as an institute responsible for executing and auditing 1994 Uruguay Agricultural Agreement (UAA) to regulate agricultural subsidies and international trade measures. Import quotas in international trade were repealed or converted into tariff rates, and with time tariff rates were reduced gradually first by UAA initiatives and later by those of the WTO. However, WTO policies allow countries to have rights to take precautions and to impose measures necessary to protect human, animal or plant life or health. In addition, countries continue to have rights to secure quality assurance in production, to protect environment, to regulate information transparency and accessibility, as well as to protect consumers against misleading labeling. These rights do not count as tariffs or quotas and are confirmed by international regulations, also referred to as technical regulations (Maskus et al. 2001). There is evidence that these technical regulations are now being used as political means in bilateral, regional and global trade in place of diminished tariffs and quotas. These regulations are called non-tariff barriers or technical barriers to trade. Developing countries are mostly affected by these regulations since they bear additional expenses to fulfill a mandatory standard imposed by the developed countries (Beghin and Bureau 2001).
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Agricultural and Applied Economics Association in its series 2013 Annual Meeting, August 4-6, 2013, Washington, D.C. with number 150021.
Date of creation: Aug 2013
Date of revision:
Contact details of provider:
Postal: 555 East Wells Street, Suite 1100, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53202
Phone: (414) 918-3190
Fax: (414) 276-3349
Web page: http://www.aaea.org
More information through EDIRC
International Trade; Gravity Model; Food and Agricultural Policy Analysis; Food Safety; Agricultural and Food Policy; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; International Relations/Trade;
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-AGR-2013-06-24 (Agricultural Economics)
- NEP-ALL-2013-06-24 (All new papers)
- NEP-ARA-2013-06-24 (MENA - Middle East & North Africa)
You can help add them by filling out this form.
reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.Access and download statisticsgeneral information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (AgEcon Search).
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.