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Gender and Development in the Middle East and North Africa : Women in the Public Sphere

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  • World Bank
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    Abstract

    Gender inequality-the differential access to opportunity and security for women and girls-has become an important and visible issue for the economies of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). Gender equality issues in MENA are usually approached from a social, anthropological, or political angle. But the costs of inequality are also borne at the economic level. This book seeks to advance the gender equality discussion in the region by framing the issues in terms of economic necessity. It analyzes the potential for women's greater economic contribution to the region's new development model, which is further discussed in three parallel books on trade, employment, and governance. It identifies key economic and sociopolitical impediments to women's increased labor force participation and empowerment, and it suggests a way forward in developing an agenda for change. MENA's achievements in many areas of women's well-being compare favorably with those of other regions. Indicators such as female education, fertility, and life expectancy show that MENA's progress in those areas in recent decades has been substantial. Where MENA falls considerably short is on indicators of women's economic participation and political empowerment (figure O.1). MENA's rate of female labor force participation is significantly lower than rates in the rest of the world, and it is lower than would be expected when considering the region's fertility rates, its educational levels, and the age structure of the female population.

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    File URL: https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/bitstream/handle/10986/15036/281150PAPER0Gender010Development0in0MNA.pdf?sequence=1
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    Bibliographic Info

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    This book is provided by The World Bank in its series World Bank Publications with number 15036 and published in 2004.

    ISBN: 0-8213-5676-3
    Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbpubs:15036

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    Postal: 1818 H Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20433
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    Web page: https://openknowledge.worldbank.org
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    Keywords: Health Monitoring and Evaluation Education - Primary Education Culture and Development - Anthropology Agricultural Knowledge and Information Systems Health Economics and Finance;

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    Cited by:
    1. Assaad, Ragui, 2013. "Making Sense of Arab Labor Markets: The Enduring Legacy of Dualism," IZA Discussion Papers 7573, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    2. Stephan E. Maurer & Andrei V. Potlogea, 2014. "Fueling the Gender Gap? Oil and Women's Labor and Marriage Market Outcomes," CEP Discussion Papers dp1280, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
    3. Nadereh Chamlou & Silvia Muzi & Hanane Ahmed, 2011. "Understanding the Determinants of Female Labor Force Participation in the Middle East and North Africa Region: The Role of Education and Social Norms in Amman," Working Papers 31, AlmaLaurea Inter-University Consortium.
    4. Zafar Mueen Nasir, 2005. "An Analysis of Occupational Choice in Pakistan: A Multinomial Approach," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 44(1), pages 57-79.
    5. Jennifer Olmsted, 2005. "Gender, Aging, And The Evolving Arab Patriarchal Contract," Feminist Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 11(2), pages 53-78.
    6. Fortuny, Mariangels & Al Husseini, Jalal, 2011. "Labour market policies and institutions: a synthesis report: the cases of Algeria, Jordan, Morocco, Syria and Turkey," ILO Working Papers 458327, International Labour Organization.
    7. Tarik M. Yousef, 2004. "Development, Growth and Policy Reform in the Middle East and North Africa since 1950," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 18(3), pages 91-115, Summer.
    8. Matteo Morgandi & Joana Silva & Victoria Levin, 2012. "Inclusion and Resilience : The Way Forward for Social Safety Nets in the Middle East and North Africa, OVERVIEW," World Bank Other Operational Studies 12261, The World Bank.
    9. Djavad Salehi-Isfahani, 2006. "Revolution and redistribution in Iran: poverty and inequality 25 years later," Working Papers e06-3, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Department of Economics.
    10. World Bank, 2010. "Arab Republic of Egypt : Gender assessment 2010," World Bank Other Operational Studies 3003, The World Bank.

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