Advanced Search
MyIDEAS: Login to save this book or follow this series

Gender and Development in the Middle East and North Africa : Women in the Public Sphere


Author Info

  • World Bank
Registered author(s):


    Gender inequality-the differential access to opportunity and security for women and girls-has become an important and visible issue for the economies of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). Gender equality issues in MENA are usually approached from a social, anthropological, or political angle. But the costs of inequality are also borne at the economic level. This book seeks to advance the gender equality discussion in the region by framing the issues in terms of economic necessity. It analyzes the potential for women's greater economic contribution to the region's new development model, which is further discussed in three parallel books on trade, employment, and governance. It identifies key economic and sociopolitical impediments to women's increased labor force participation and empowerment, and it suggests a way forward in developing an agenda for change. MENA's achievements in many areas of women's well-being compare favorably with those of other regions. Indicators such as female education, fertility, and life expectancy show that MENA's progress in those areas in recent decades has been substantial. Where MENA falls considerably short is on indicators of women's economic participation and political empowerment (figure O.1). MENA's rate of female labor force participation is significantly lower than rates in the rest of the world, and it is lower than would be expected when considering the region's fertility rates, its educational levels, and the age structure of the female population.

    Download Info

    If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    Bibliographic Info

    as in new window
    This book is provided by The World Bank in its series World Bank Publications with number 15036 and published in 2004.

    ISBN: 0-8213-5676-3
    Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbpubs:15036

    Contact details of provider:
    Postal: 1818 H Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20433
    Phone: (202) 477-1234
    Web page:
    More information through EDIRC

    Related research

    Keywords: Health Monitoring and Evaluation Education - Primary Education Culture and Development - Anthropology Agricultural Knowledge and Information Systems Health Economics and Finance;


    No references listed on IDEAS
    You can help add them by filling out this form.


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as in new window

    Cited by:
    1. Nadereh Chamlou & Silvia Muzi & Hanane Ahmed, 2011. "Understanding the Determinants of Female Labor Force Participation in the Middle East and North Africa Region: The Role of Education and Social Norms in Amman," Working Papers, AlmaLaurea Inter-University Consortium 31, AlmaLaurea Inter-University Consortium.
    2. Jennifer Olmsted, 2005. "Gender, Aging, And The Evolving Arab Patriarchal Contract," Feminist Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 11(2), pages 53-78.
    3. Stephan E. Maurer & Andrei V. Potlogea, 2014. "Fueling the Gender Gap? Oil and Women's Labor and Marriage Market Outcomes," CEP Discussion Papers, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE dp1280, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
    4. Assaad, Ragui, 2013. "Making Sense of Arab Labor Markets: The Enduring Legacy of Dualism," IZA Discussion Papers, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) 7573, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    5. Djavad Salehi-Isfahani, 2006. "Revolution and redistribution in Iran: poverty and inequality 25 years later," Working Papers, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Department of Economics e06-3, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Department of Economics.
    6. Fortuny, Mariangels & Al Husseini, Jalal, 2011. "Labour market policies and institutions: a synthesis report: the cases of Algeria, Jordan, Morocco, Syria and Turkey," ILO Working Papers, International Labour Organization 458327, International Labour Organization.
    7. Matteo Morgandi & Joana Silva & Victoria Levin, 2012. "Inclusion and Resilience : The Way Forward for Social Safety Nets in the Middle East and North Africa, OVERVIEW," World Bank Other Operational Studies, The World Bank 12261, The World Bank.
    8. World Bank, 2008. "Jordan - Resolving Jordan's Labor Market Paradox of Concurrent Economic Growth and High Unemployment," World Bank Other Operational Studies, The World Bank 18907, The World Bank.
    9. Tarik M. Yousef, 2004. "Development, Growth and Policy Reform in the Middle East and North Africa since 1950," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 18(3), pages 91-115, Summer.
    10. Zafar Mueen Nasir, 2005. "An Analysis of Occupational Choice in Pakistan: A Multinomial Approach," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 44(1), pages 57-79.
    11. World Bank, 2010. "Arab Republic of Egypt : Gender assessment 2010," World Bank Other Operational Studies, The World Bank 3003, The World Bank.


    This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.


    Access and download statistics


    When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wbk:wbpubs:15036. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Thomas Breineder).

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

    If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.