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Dimensions of Proximity and Knowledge Bases: Innovation between Spatial and Non-spatial Factors

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  • Jannika Mattes
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    Abstract

    M attes J. Dimensions of proximity and knowledge bases: innovation between spatial and non-spatial factors, Regional Studies . Innovations face the challenge of integrating knowledge from heterogeneous sources by establishing an appropriate level of proximity. Proximity is thereby not a purely spatial phenomenon, but also includes organizational, institutional, social and cognitive dimensions. Geographical and social proximity are thereby auxiliary factors, whereas organizational, institutional and cognitive proximity act as critical enablers for learning. These dimensions can be connected to synthetic, analytical and symbolic knowledge bases. They thereby trigger a dynamic trade-off between various forms of proximity, whereby the proximity form varies depending on the underlying knowledge base. Hence, innovation is a complex combination of spatial and non-spatial factors. M attes J. 空间毗邻性所涉及的&# x5C42;面及知识基础:基 E8E;空间与非空间因素ݨ 4;创新,区域研究。创 新试图通过构建特定&# x5C42;面的空间毗邻性来 E94;对整合异质性知识ࣽ 9;一挑战。毗邻性因此 不仅限于单纯的空间&# x73B0;象,同时还涉及到 EC4;织、制度、社会以Լ A;认知等多层面要素。 在学习过程的形成中&# xFF0C;地理以及社会毗邻 027;成为辅助要素,而߬ 4;织、制度以及认知毗 邻性发挥了关键性作&# x7528;。上述各层面与综 408;性、分析性以及象׸ 1;性的知识基础相关联 ,引发了基于不同知&# x8BC6;基础的多种形式的 BD7;邻性之间多样化的ݯ 8;互权衡过程。因此, 创新是一个复杂的空&# x95F4;与非空间要素的综 408;体。 毗邻性 知识基础 &# x5B66;习 学习区域 地 406;毗邻性 M attes J. Les dimensions des bases de proximité et de connaissance: l'innovation entre des facteurs géographiques et non-géographiques, Regional Studies . Les innovations font face au défi de l'intégration de la connaissance provenant des sources hétérogènes en établissant un niveau de proximité approprié. Il s'ensuit, alors, que la proximité n'est pas un phénomène purement géographique mais comprend également des dimensions organisationnelle, institutionnelle, sociale et cognitive. Les proximités géographique et sociale sont, donc, des facteurs auxiliaires, tandis que les proximités organisationnelle, institutionnelle et cognitive constituent des facteurs clés qui favorisent la connaissance. On peut lier ces dimensions à des bases de connaissance synthétique, analytique et symbolique. De cette façon, elles déclenchent un compromis dynamique entre divers types de proximité selon lesquels la proximité varie en fonction de la base de connaissance sous-jacente. Donc, l'innovation s'avère une combinaison complexe de facteurs géographiques et non-géographiques. Proximité Base de connaissance Apprentissage Régions d'apprentissage Proximité géographique M attes J. Dimensionen von Nähe und Wissensbasen. Innovation zwischen räumlichen und nicht-räumlichen Faktoren, Regional Studies . Bei Innovationen ergibt sich das Problem, dass Wissen aus heterogenen Quellen durch Festlegung eines angemessenen Maßes an Nähe integriert werden muss. Nähe ist somit kein rein räumliches Phänomen, sondern umfasst auch organisationelle, institutionelle, soziale und kognitive Dimensionen. Geografische und soziale Nähe sind hierbei Hilfsfaktoren, während die organisationelle, institutionelle und kognitive Nähe als zentrale Faktoren zur Ermöglichung von Lernen wirken. Diese Dimensionen lassen sich mit synthetischen, analytischen und symbolischen Wissensbasen verknüpfen. Auf diese Weise lösen sie einen dynamischen Ausgleich zwischen verschiedenen Formen der Nähe aus, bei dem die Form der Nähe je nach der zugrundeliegenden Wissensbasis unterschiedlich ausfällt. Innovation ist also eine komplexe Kombination aus räumlichen und nicht-räumlichen Faktoren. Nähe Wissensbasis Lernen Lernregionen Geo grafische Nähe M attes J. Dimensiones de proximidad y de las bases de conocimiento: innovación entre factores espaciales y no espaciales, Regional Studies . En el campo de las innovaciones surge el problema de integrar el conocimiento de fuentes heterogéneas estableciendo un nivel apropiado de proximidad. La proximidad no es, por tanto, un fenómeno puramente espacial sino que también incluye dimensiones organizativas, institucionales, sociales y cognitivas. Por consiguiente, las proximidades geográfica y social son factores auxiliares, mientras que las proximidades organizativa, institucional y cognitiva actúan como activadores fundamentales del aprendizaje. Estas dimensiones pueden conectarse a bases de conocimiento sintético, analítico y simbólico. En este sentido activan un intercambio dinámico entre las diferentes formas de proximidad de modo que la forma de proximidad varía en función de la base de conocimiento subyacente. Por ende, la innovación es una combinación compleja de factores espaciales y no espaciales. Proximidad Base de conocimiento Aprendizaje Regiones de aprendizaje Proximidad geográfica

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    Article provided by Taylor & Francis Journals in its journal Regional Studies.

    Volume (Year): 46 (2012)
    Issue (Month): 8 (December)
    Pages: 1085-1099

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    Handle: RePEc:taf:regstd:v:46:y:2012:i:8:p:1085-1099

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    Cited by:
    1. Friedrich Dornbusch & Sidonia von Proff & Thomas Brenner, 2013. "The organizational and regional determinants of inter-regional collaborations – Academic inventors as bridging agents," Working Papers on Innovation and Space 2013-11, Philipps University Marburg, Department of Geography.
    2. Wang, Jue & Liu, Xiaming & Wei, Yingqi & Wang, Chengang, 2014. "Cultural Proximity and Local Firms’ catch up with Multinational Enterprises," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 60(C), pages 1-13.
    3. Karlsson, Charlie & Johansson, Börje & Kobayashi, Kiyoshi & Stough, Roger R., 2014. "Knowledge, innovation and space," Working Paper Series in Economics and Institutions of Innovation 367, Royal Institute of Technology, CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies.

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