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Technological Specialization and Variety in Urban Invention

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  • Breandan O Huallachain
  • Der-Shiuan Lee

Abstract

O HUallachain B. and Lee D.-S. Technological specialization and variety in urban invention, Regional Studies. Urban economic theory distinguishes between knowledge spillovers that occur within specializations and those that cross technologies. Empirical analysis has sought to gauge their relative strength, but the results are inconclusive. Metropolitan specialization and variety at different aggregation levels of a US patent classification system are assessed using Theil's relative entropy index. The results show that specialization and variety are not competing features of urban technological structure; cities can have both. The invention rate positively associates with specialization in diverse technologies. The cross-fertilization of ideas among skilled professionals with different expertise and the interaction between specialists of narrow fields of knowledge are both important in technological advance. The most inventive cities have deep specializations in different technologies. The results also show significant spatial dependence in technological specialization/variety and in invention rates. [image omitted] O hUallachain B. et Lee D.-S. La specialisation et la diversite technologiques dans l'invention urbaine, Regional Studies. La theorie economique urbaine distingue entre les retombees de la connaissance dues a la specialisation et celles qui recouvrent les technologies. L'analyse empirique a cherche a estimer leur importance relative, mais les resultats s'averent peu concluants. Employant l'indice entropique relative de Theil, on evalue la specialisation et la diversite metropolitaines a divers niveaux d'agregation du classement des brevets aux E-U. Les resultats laissent voir que la specialisation et la diversite ne se rivalisent pas dans la structure technologique urbaine; les grandes villes peuvent se doter des deux. Le taux d'invention est en etroite correlation avec la specialisation dans diverses technologies. La synergie des professionnels qualifies, dont les competences varient, et l'interaction entre les specialistes, dont les domaines de competences sont bien delimites, sont importantes, toutes les deux, au progres technologique. Les grandes villes les plus inventives ont des specialisations approfondies dans diverses technologies. Les resultats montrent aussi une dependance geographique vis-a-vis de la specialisation/diversite technologiques et des taux d'invention. Invention Specialisation Diversite Effets externes urbains Brevets O hUallachain B. und Lee D.-S. Technologische Spezialisierung und Vielfalt bei urbanen Erfindungen, Regional Studies. In der Theorie der urbanen Okonomie unterscheidet man zwischen Wissensubertragungen, die innerhalb einer Spezialisierung erfolgen, und Wissensubertragungen, die technologieubergreifend stattfinden. Es wurde versucht, die relative Starke dieser Wissens-ubertragungen durch empirische Analysen zu ermitteln, was jedoch zu keinen schlussigen Ergebnissen fuhrte. Mit Hilfe des Theilschen relativen Entropieindexes untersuchen wir die metropolitane Spezialisierung und Vielfalt auf verschiedenen Aggregationsstufen eines Klassifikationssystems fur US-Patente. Aus den Ergebnissen geht hervor, dass es sich bei der Spezialisierung und Vielfalt nicht um konkurrierende Merkmale einer urbanen technologischen Struktur handelt; vielmehr konnen Stadte beides aufweisen. Die Erfindungsrate steht in einem positiven Zusammenhang mit der Spezialisierung verschiedener Technologien. Der Ideenaustausch zwischen qualifizierten Fachkraften mit unterschiedlichen Fachkenntnissen und die Wechselwirkungen zwischen Fachleuten innerhalb enger Wissensgebiete spielen fur den technischen Fortschritt beide eine wichtige Rolle. Die innovativsten Stadte weisen eine hochgradige Spezialisierung in verschiedenen Technologien auf. Ebenso geht aus den Ergebnissen eine signifikanteraumliche Abhangigkeit der technologischen Spezialisierung bzw. Vielfalt sowie der Erfindungsraten hervor. Erfindung Spezialisierung Vielfalt Urbane Externalitaten Patente O hUallachain B. y Lee D.-S. Especializacion y variedad tecnologicas en la invencion urbana, Regional Studies. En la teoria economica urbana se distingue entre los desbordamientos de conocimiento que ocurren dentro de las especializaciones y los desbordamientos de conocimiento que tienen lugar entre varias tecnologias. Se ha intentado evaluar la fuerza relativa de estos desbordamientos mediante analisis empiricos pero los resultados no son concluyentes. Con ayuda del indice Theil de entropia relativa, evaluamos la especializacion y la variedad metropolitanas en los diferentes niveles de agregacion de un sistema de clasificacion de patentes en los Estados Unidos. Los resultados indican que la especializacion y la variedad no son caracteristicas competitivas de la estructura tecnologica urbana; las ciudades pueden poseer ambas. La tasa de invencion se relaciona positivamente con la especializacion en diversas tecnologias. El intercambio de ideas entre profesionales cualificados con diferentes conocimientos y la interaccion entre los especialistas de campos estrechos de conocimientos son ambos importantes para el avance tecnologico. Las ciudades mas inventivas tienen un alto grado de especializacion en las diferentes tecnologias. Los resultados tambien muestran una dependencia espacial significativa en la especializacion/variedad tecnologica y las tasas de invencion. Invencion Especializacion Variedad Efectos externos urbanos Patentes

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Taylor & Francis Journals in its journal Regional Studies.

Volume (Year): 45 (2011)
Issue (Month): 1 ()
Pages: 67-88

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Handle: RePEc:taf:regstd:v:45:y:2011:i:1:p:67-88

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Keywords: Invention; Specialization; Variety; Urban externalities; Patents;

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Cited by:
  1. Frank Van Oort & Stefan de Geus & Teodora Dogaru, 2013. "Related Variety and Regional Economic Growth in a Cross-Section of European Urban Regions," Papers in Evolutionary Economic Geography (PEEG) 1312, Utrecht University, Section of Economic Geography, revised Aug 2013.
  2. Frank Van Oort, 2013. "Agglomeration Economics Beyond the Specialisation-Diversity Controversy," Papers in Evolutionary Economic Geography (PEEG) 1313, Utrecht University, Section of Economic Geography, revised Aug 2013.
  3. Stefano Breschi & Camilla Lenzi, 2014. "The role of external linkages and gatekeepers for the renewal and expansion of U.S. cities’ knowledge base, 1990-2004," Papers in Evolutionary Economic Geography (PEEG) 1414, Utrecht University, Section of Economic Geography, revised Jun 2014.

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