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Analysing Andalusian Virtual Water Trade in an Input-Output Framework


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  • Erik Dietzenbacher
  • Esther Velazquez


Dietzenbacher E. and Velazquez E. (2007) Analysing Andalusian virtual water trade in an input-output framework, Regional Studies 41, 1-12. Andalusian agricultural sectors are relatively small, but account for 90% of annual water consumption. More than 50% of the agricultural final demands is exported to other Spanish regions or abroad. Using the concept of virtual water within an input-output framework, it is found that a substantial part of Andalusian water consumption is embodied in its exports. Considering the virtual water content of its trade, Andalusia is a net exporter of water. Examining regional policy aspects, a reduction in the exports abroad of agricultural products yields considerable benefits in terms of water savings, while the negative effects are only moderate. Dietzenbacher E. et Velazquez E. (2007) Une analyse des echanges andalous d'eau virtuelle dans le contexte d'un tableau d'echanges interindustriels, Regional Studies 41, 1-12. Les secteurs agricoles andalous sont relativement petits mais expliquent 90% de la consommation d'eau. Plus de 50% de la demande finale agricole est exporte aux autres regions espagnoles ou a l'etranger. En employant la notion d'eau virtuelle dans le contexte d'un tableau d'echanges interindustriels, il s'avere qu'une part importante de la consommation andalouse d'eau s'explique par les exportations. Compte tenu de l'importance de l'eau virtuelle pour ses exportations, l'Andalousie s'avere une exportatrice nette d'eau. Sur le plan regional, une reduction des exportations a l'etranger des produits agricoles rapporte des retombees positives non-negligeables en termes des economies d'eau, tandis que les retombees negatives ne sont que limitees. Modeles des echanges interindustriels Eau virtuelle Echanges et perennite Dietzenbacher E. und Velazquez E. (2007) Analyse des virtuellen Wasserhandels in Andalusien in einem Input-Output-Rahmen, Regional Studies 41, 1-12. Die landwirtschaftlichen Sektoren Andalusiens sind relativ klein, machen aber 90% des jahrlichen Wasserverbrauchs aus. Mehr als 50% des landwirtschaftlichen Endbedarfs wird in andere spanische Regionen oder ins Ausland exportiert. Mit Hilfe des Konzepts von virtuellem Wasser innerhalb eines Input-Output-Rahmens kamen wir zum Ergebnis, dass ein erheblicher Teil des Wasserverbrauchs von Andalusien in den Exporten der Region verkorpert ist. Am virtuellen Wassergehalt seines Handels gemessen ist Andalusien ein Netto-Exporteur von Wasser. Bei einer Untersuchung der regionalpolitischen Aspekte zeigt sich, dass sich eine Verringerung des Auslandsexports von landwirtschaftlichen Erzeugnissen deutlich positiv auf die Wassereinsparungen auswirkt, wahrend die negativen Effekte nur massig ausfallen. Input-Output-Modelle Virtuelles Wasser Handel und Nachhaltigkeit Dietzenbacher E. y Velazquez E. (2007) Analisis del agua virtual de Andalucia segun una estructura de entrada-salida, Regional Studies 41, 1-12. Los sectores agricolas en Andalucia son relativamente pequenos pero representan el 90% del consumo anual de agua. Mas del 50% de las demandas agricolas finales son exportadas a otras regiones espanolas o al extranjero. Mediante el concepto del agua virtual dentro de una estructura de entrada-salida, observamos que una parte importante del consumo de agua en Andalucia se pierde en las exportaciones. Teniendo en cuenta el contenido de agua virtual en el comercio, Andalucia es un exportador neto de agua. Examinando los aspectos de la politica regional, observamos que una reduccion en las exportaciones extranjeras de los productos agricolas produce beneficios considerables en lo que respecta al ahorro mientras que los efectos negativos son solo moderados. Modelos de entrada-salida Agua virtual Comercio y sostenibilidad

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Taylor & Francis Journals in its journal Regional Studies.

Volume (Year): 41 (2007)
Issue (Month): 2 ()
Pages: 185-196

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Handle: RePEc:taf:regstd:v:41:y:2007:i:2:p:185-196

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Keywords: Input-output models; Virtual water; Trade and sustainability;


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Cited by:
  1. Skelton, Alexandra C.H. & Allwood, Julian M., 2013. "The incentives for supply chain collaboration to improve material efficiency in the use of steel: An analysis using input output techniques," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 89(C), pages 33-42.
  2. Cazcarro, Ignacio & Duarte, Rosa & Sánchez-Chóliz, Julio, 2013. "Economic growth and the evolution of water consumption in Spain: A structural decomposition analysis," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 96(C), pages 51-61.
  3. Elena, Galan-del-Castillo & Esther, Velazquez, 2010. "From water to energy: The virtual water content and water footprint of biofuel consumption in Spain," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(3), pages 1345-1352, March.
  4. Llop Llop, Maria, 2011. "Water Reallocation in the Input-Output Model," Working Papers 2072/151815, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Department of Economics.
  5. Esther Velázquez & Cristina Madrid & María Beltrán, 2011. "Rethinking the Concepts of Virtual Water and Water Footprint in Relation to the Production–Consumption Binomial and the Water–Energy Nexus," Water Resources Management, Springer, vol. 25(2), pages 743-761, January.
  6. M. Antonelli & R. Roson & M. Sartori, 2012. "Systemic Input-Output Computation of Green and Blue Virtual Water ‘Flows’ with an Illustration for the Mediterranean Region," Water Resources Management, Springer, vol. 26(14), pages 4133-4146, November.
  7. Valeria Cosmo & Marie Hyland & Maria Llop, 2014. "Disentangling Water Usage in the European Union: A Decomposition Analysis," Water Resources Management, Springer, vol. 28(5), pages 1463-1479, March.
  8. Esther Velázquez & M. Alejandro Cardenete & Geoffrey J.D. Hewings, 2007. "Water price and water reallocation in Andalusia. A computable general equilibrium approach," Working Papers 07.04, Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Department of Economics.
  9. Aleix Altimiras-Martin, 2012. "Basic analytical tool-kit for input-output tables with multiple related outputs: Applications to physical input-output tables with disposals to nature," 4CMR Working Paper Series 001, University of Cambridge, Department of Land Economy, Cambridge Centre for Climate Change Mitigation Research.
  10. Roberto Roson & Martina Sartori, 2011. "Climate Change and Virtual Water Trade in the Mediterranean," QA - Rivista dell'Associazione Rossi-Doria, Associazione Rossi Doria, issue 3, September.
  11. Shmelev, Stanislav Edward, 2010. "Environmentally Extended Input–Output Analysis of the UK Economy: Key Sector Analysis," MPRA Paper 27206, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  12. María Jesús Beltrán & Esther Velázquez, 2011. "Del metabolismo social al metabolismo hídrico," Documentos de Trabajo de la Asociación de Economía Ecológica en España 01_2011, Asociación de Economía Ecológica en España.
  13. Mubako, Stanley & Lahiri, Sajal & Lant, Christopher, 2013. "Input–output analysis of virtual water transfers: Case study of California and Illinois," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 93(C), pages 230-238.
  14. Lenzen, Manfred & Bhaduri, Anik & Moran, Daniel & Kanemoto, Keiichiro & Bekchanov, Maksud & Geschke, Arne & Foran, Barney, 2012. "The role of scarcity in global virtual water flows," Discussion Papers 133478, University of Bonn, Center for Development Research (ZEF).
  15. Erik Dietzenbacher, 2010. "Vertical specialization in an intercountry input-output framework," Letters in Spatial and Resource Sciences, Springer, vol. 3(3), pages 127-136, October.


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