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Libéralisme et interventionnisme. Analyse comparée des opinions sur le rôle économique de l'État et du gouvernement dans six pays

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  • Michel Forsé
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    Abstract

    [eng] Economic liberalism and interventionism. A comparative analysis of opinions about the economic role of government in six countries Economic liberalism and interventionism A comparative analysis of opinions about the economic role of government in six countries Michel Forse The analysis of the 1996 ISSP survey shows that economic opinions are structured according to two very distinct poles: liberalism and interventionism, which constitute two attitudes having each one strong internal consistency. The Spaniards prove to be the most interventionist whereas the Americans are the most liberal. Germans, Swedes, Czechs and Frenchmen are less extreme, but the latter are the closest to the American liberal position. It is striking that this hierarchy is not correlated with standard indicators of the different macroeconomic or political situations. In fact, economic attitudes vary according to longer term factors than those involved in the only short term economic or political situation. [fre] Une analyse comparée des opinions sur le rôle économique de l'Etat et du gouvernement dans six pays peut être menée à partir d'un sondage réalisé dans le cadre de l'nternational Social Survey Program en 1996 ou 1997. Ces opinions économiques se structurent selon deux pôles très tranchés : libéralisme et interventionnisme, qui constituent deux attitudes ayant chacune une forte cohérence interne. Les Espagnols se révèlent être les plus interventionnistes, alors que les Américains sont les plus libéraux. Allemands, Suédois, Tchèques et Fran ais sont moins radicaux, mais ces derniers sont les plus proches de la position libérale américaine. Il s'agit là de positions relatives. Dans la plupart des cas, les opinions interventionnistes restent majoritaires en France. Elles le sont d'ailleurs souvent aussi aux Etats-Unis. Toutefois, en moyenne et relativement aux autres pays, elles le sont moins. Alors que dans chaque pays les caractéristiques politiques ou sociales des enquêtes expliquent bien, et de façon assez similaire, le degré d'adhésion au libéralisme, il est frappant de constater que la hiérarchie des pays quant à ce degré d'adhésion n'est pas corrélée avec des indicateurs courants de conjoncture macroéconomique ou politique. En fait, les attitudes économiques varient selon des facteurs de plus long terme que ceux qui sont enjeu dans la seule conjoncture.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Programme National Persée in its journal Revue de l'OFCE.

    Volume (Year): 68 (1999)
    Issue (Month): 1 ()
    Pages: 219-240

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    Handle: RePEc:prs:rvofce:ofce_0751-6614_1999_num_68_1_1716

    Note: DOI:10.3406/ofce.1999.1716
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    Web page: http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/revue/ofce

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