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Les Pays-Bas : une société à flexibilité limitée

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  • Catherine Bruno
  • Valérie Chauvin

Abstract

[eng] The Netherlands flexibility under control. Catherine Bruno, Valérie Chauvin. Many of the other European countries envy the Dutch economic performance, especially in the field of employment : employment grew by about 20% from 1982 to 1996 and the unemployment rate has been cut by half from 1982 to 1996. Twenty years ago, economists were discussing about the Dutch disease. Now, they talk about the Dutch miracle. Over the last fifteen years, deep changes happened on the Dutch labor market : part-time jobs developed, wage increases were moderate and the labor time was reduced. The reduction of labor costs seems to be the most important change. Indeed, it improved the Dutch competitiveness, so that foreign trade could boost growth. Moreover, the same rate of growth would have led to more employment than the past thanks to labor time reduction and hourly productivity slowdown. The unemployment rate has been reduced despite the growth of labor force which stems from demographic factors but also from labor market policy changes. Nevertheless, labor market policy is still generous unemployment allowances are high and disabled persons, whose allowances are even higher, represent 10% of total labor force in 1996. So, the Dutch labor market is more flexible since 1982 but the government controls this flexibility in maintaining workers' advantages and social unity bet ween employers and employees. [fre] Depuis 1983, les Pays-Bas ont réalisé en matière d'emploi et de chômage de bonnes performances par rapport aux autres pays européens. De profondes mutations ont eu lieu au cours des quinze dernières années sur le marché du travail : développement du temps partiel, modération salariale et réduction du temps de travail. Parmi ces évolutions, la baisse du coût du travail semble importante. Elle a permis de réaliser des gains de compétitivité en suivant une politique de désinflation compétitive très stricte. Le commerce extérieur a ainsi tiré la croissance. Par ailleurs, la réduction de la durée du travail et le ralentissement de la productivité horaire du travail ont permis d'augmenter le contenu en emplois de la croissance. La baisse du taux de chômage a été réalisée malgré une croissance de la population active, qui provient de l'évolution démographique mais aussi des restrictions de politique de l'emploi. Toutefois, celle-ci reste généreuse : les indemnités chômage sont élevées et le statut d'invalide, mieux indemnisé encore que le chômage, accueille 10 % de la population. Ainsi, les réformes entreprises aux Pays-Bas sont allées dans le sens d'une plus grande souplesse du fonctionnement du marché du travail. Toutefois, ce surcroît de flexibilité s'accompagne d'une volonté des pouvoirs publics de maintenir la cohésion sociale et les acquis des salariés.

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File URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.3406/ofce.1998.1486
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File URL: http://www.persee.fr/articleAsPDF/ofce_0751-6614_1998_num_64_1_1486/ofce_0751-6614_1998_num_64_1_1486.pdf?mode=light
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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Programme National Persée in its journal Revue de l'OFCE.

Volume (Year): 64 (1998)
Issue (Month): 1 ()
Pages: 97-127

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Handle: RePEc:prs:rvofce:ofce_0751-6614_1998_num_64_1_1486

Note: DOI:10.3406/ofce.1998.1486
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Web page: http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/revue/ofce

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Cited by:
  1. Jérôme Creel & Jacques Le Cacheux, 2006. "La nouvelle désinflation compétitive européenne," Revue de l'OFCE, Presses de Sciences-Po, vol. 98(3), pages 7-36.
  2. repec:spo:wpecon:info:hdl:2441/2085 is not listed on IDEAS
  3. Sébastien Jean, 2000. "Syndrome, miracle, modèle polder et autres spécificités néerlandaises," Working Papers 2000-12, CEPII research center.

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