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A la recherche de la révolution économique dans les campagnes (1789-1815)

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  • Gilles Postel-Vinay

Abstract

[eng] In search of the economic impact of revolution and wars on french agriculture. 1789-1815. . The volume of agricultural output has increased slowly during the Revolution and under the Empire. Aggregate indices, despite their degree of uncertainty, allow us to discard the hypothesis of a « great collapse » as much as that of a sensible progress of productive forces. The impulsion appears to have been related to the income redistribution which benefitted mainly the rural wage-earners and, to a lesser extent because unevenly observed across regions, the peasants. Factors such as the decline of urban markets or the numerous disruptions of the credit and exchange circuits which, in opposition to earlier movements, tend to reactivate regional segmentation, are however playing in the opposite direction. Hence, to the extent that French agriculture is reacting to the Revolution and to wars through disintegration, we may not invoke a unified model to represent the state of the agricultural economy over this period, with a possible exception found in the (temporary) growth in real wages. [fre] A la recherche de la révolution économique dans les campagnes (1789-1815). . Le volume de la production agricole connaît une faible augmentation pendant les années de la Révolution et de l'Empire. Bien qu'imparfaits, les indicateurs globaux permettent d'écarter tant l'hypothèse d'un « grand déclassement » que celle d'un progrès sensible des forces productives. L'impulsion paraît alors liée à la redistribution opérée surtout au bénéfice des salariés ruraux et, à un moindre degré car de manière très variable dans l'espace, au bénéfice des paysans. Jouent, en revanche, en sens inverse l'affaiblissement des débouchés urbains comme les multiples ruptures des circuits d'échange et de crédit qui, à contre courant de la tendance antérieure, réaccentuent les cloisonnements régionaux. Mis à part la hausse, du reste temporaire, du salaire réel, on peut ainsi d'autant moins parler d'un modèle unifié pour cette période que l'économie agricole réagit aux chocs de la Révolution et des guerres par le fractionnement.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Programme National Persée in its journal Revue économique.

Volume (Year): 40 (1989)
Issue (Month): 6 ()
Pages: 1015-1046

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Handle: RePEc:prs:reveco:reco_0035-2764_1989_num_40_6_409183

Note: DOI:10.2307/3501977
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Web page: http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/revue/reco

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