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Les fondements microéconomiques du principe de la demande effective

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  • Gilbert Koenig

Abstract

[eng] supply and demand model used in chapter 3 of « The General Theory » for presentation of this principle.. The aggregate supply and demand are based on a method of aggregation which reflects the wïll of ]. M. Keynes to define a disaggregated frame for his employment theory. The adjustment between aggregate supply and demand which determines the actual value of employment is not a mechanical adjustment. It is instead a hypothetical and subjective adjustment conducted in terms of the expectations of producers. This presentation shows without ambiguity the specificity of the keynesian theory : the explicit introduction of a price system reflects the wïll of J. M. Keynes to put an end to the division of economies between the theory of value and the theory of money ; the relation between the effective demand and the value of employment leads to the definition of unvoluntary unemployment. However, the analysis of unemployment concerns only the situation of unemployment equilibrium in the presentation of chapter 3 of « The General Theory ». An extension of this analysis require an extension of this model whose microeconomic foundations must be revised. A double extension may be considered : the first uses the concept of aggregate demand and analyses the effects of errors in short-term expectations on employment ; the second takes the price rigidity into consideration and broadens the concept of keynesian unemployment. [fre] Les présentations courantes du principe de la demande effective contribuent à diffuser l'image d'un « keynésianisme hydraulique » et purement macroéconomique dont la spécificité par rapport à la théorie antérieure est parfois difficile à déterminer. Cette image diffère d'une façon importante de celle qui résulte de l'analyse microéconômique du schéma d'offre et de demande globales utilisé dans le chapitre 3 de la a Théorie Générale » pour présenter ce principe.. En effet, le choix du mode d'agrégation sur lequel se fonde ce schéma reflète la volonté de J. M. .Keynes de définir un cadre désagrégé pour la théorie de l'emploi. De plus, en mettant l'accent sur les ajustements hypothétiques et subjectifs entre l'offre et la demande globales qui sont conduits en terme d'anticipations des producteurs, ce schéma écarte la conception d'une détermination mécanique de l'emploi. Enfin, ce schéma permet de rendre compte des efforts déployés par J. M. Keynes pour se soustraire à l'influence de ses prédécesseurs. Ces efforts se traduisent par l'intégration explicite d'un système de prix dans son analyse glo­bale de l'emploi, ce qui reflète le soucis de J. M. Keynes de réconcilier la théorie de la valeur et la théorie de la monnaie, et par la définition du chômage invo­lontaire qui ne devient claire que si on l'analyse à la lumière du schéma d'offre et de demande globales.. L'analyse du chômage définie dans ce cadre est cependant limitée à la situation d'équilibre de sous-emploi. Son extension nécessite celle du schéma d'offre et de demande globales dont les fondements microéconomiques doivent être réalisés. Une double extension est envisagée : l'une conduit à exploiter le concept de demande globale et à rendre compte de l'incidence des erreurs d'anticipations de courte période, l'autre consiste à tenir compte de la rigidité des prix et à spécifier le concept de chômage keynésien.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Programme National Persée in its journal Revue économique.

Volume (Year): 31 (1980)
Issue (Month): 3 ()
Pages: 430-464

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Handle: RePEc:prs:reveco:reco_0035-2764_1980_num_31_3_408534

Note: DOI:10.2307/3501261
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Web page: http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/revue/reco

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Cited by:
  1. Jochen Hartwig, 2006. "Explaining the aggregate price level with Keynes's principle of effective demand," Review of Social Economy, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 64(4), pages 469-492.
  2. Jochen Hartwig, 2004. "Keynes versus the Post Keynesians on the Principle of Effective Demand," KOF Working papers 04-88, KOF Swiss Economic Institute, ETH Zurich.

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