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Le système américain de sécurité des aliments: science, précaution et réponse aux demandes sociales

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  • Anne-Gaëlle Macé
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    Abstract

    [eng] The international trade negotiations concerning food products are a battlefield for the European Union and the United States, at the center of which is the question of the aknowledgement of the precautionary principle. The aim of this article is to understand the arguments of the American negotiators by studying their national food safety system. The article first describes the system's main guiding principles and what are the institutions involved in food safety. Then, it focuses on a surprising provision. The Delaney Clause, which was enacted in 1958, sets a zero tolerance standard for food additives that contain carcinogenic substances. Being in contradiction with the main principle of the system -that is the requirement of a sound science basis, this text seems to be the best example of the situations where the United States also take public opinion's demands into consideration [fre] Les négociations internationales dans le domaine des échanges commerciaux de produits alimentaires constituent un terrain d'affrontement pour l'Union Européenne et les États-Unis, avec notamment comme enjeu la reconnaissance du principe de précaution. L'objectif de cet article est de comprendre les arguments défendus par les représentants américains en étudiant le système juridique national encadrant la sécurité des aliments. Après en avoir décrit les principes directeurs et l'organisation institutionnelle, d'ailleurs en voie de révision, l'article s'arrête sur une disposition surprenante. La Delaney Clause est une disposition datant de 1958 et qui pose un principe de zéro tolérance pour les additifs alimentaires comportant des substances cancérigènes. À l'inverse du principe fondamental du système américain qu'est l'exigence d'un fondement scientifique valable, cette disposition paraît être l'exemple parfait de la manière dont les États- Unis font aussi place à la demande sociale.

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    File URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.3406/ecoru.2002.5295
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    File URL: http://www.persee.fr/articleAsPDF/ecoru_0013-0559_2002_num_267_1_5295/ecoru_0013-0559_2002_num_267_1_5295.pdf?mode=light
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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Programme National Persée in its journal Économie rurale.

    Volume (Year): 267 (2002)
    Issue (Month): 1 ()
    Pages: 67-78

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    Handle: RePEc:prs:recoru:ecoru_0013-0559_2002_num_267_1_5295

    Note: DOI:10.3406/ecoru.2002.5295
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    Web page: http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/revue/ecoru

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