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Concurrence dans la qualification environnementale des produits

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  • Alain Nadaï
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    Abstract

    [eng] Since the beginning of the nineties, product ecolabelling devices have proliferated worldwide. However, an industrial opposition hinders the development of the ecolabels on the final markets. Based on a detailed examination of the devising of the European ecolabel on detergents, and on a theoretical specification of products environmental quality, this paper examines this problem. It shows that this opposition : i) takes place in industries in which the products of the firms have different environmental performances ; ii) derives from the fact that the costs of environmental innovation (i.e. the cost of making « environmental » a product which is not considered as such) are determined by the process of ecolabelling. This allows us to interpret both the tensions between industrial strategics groups during this process and the industrial opposition to the ecolabel, as the resuilt of competitive strategies aimed at minimising these costs of environmental innovation. [fre] Depuis le début des années 90, les dispositifs d'étiquetage de la qualité environnementale des produits (i.e. écolabélisation) se sont multipliés au niveau mondial. Cependant, l'opposition de certaines firmes freine le développement des écolabels sur les marchés. En se basant sur l'analyse du processus d'élaboration de l'écolabel européen pour les détergents et sur une spécification théorique de la qualité environnementale des produits, cet article montre que cette opposition trouve son origine dans le fait que les coûts d'innovation environnementale (i.e. le coût nécessaire pour rendre « environnemental » un produit qui ne l'est pas) sont déterminés au cours du processus d'élaboration de l'écolabel : ils dépendent des exigences à l'écolabélisation qui sont retenues à l'issue de ce processus. Les affrontements entre groupes stratégiques de firmes et les oppositions à l'instauration d'un écolabel qui y prennent place peuvent alors être interprétés comme le résultat de stratégies concurrentielles visant à minimiser ces coûts.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Programme National Persée in its journal Revue d'économie industrielle.

    Volume (Year): 83 (1998)
    Issue (Month): 1 ()
    Pages: 197-212

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    Handle: RePEc:prs:recind:rei_0154-3229_1998_num_83_1_1709

    Note: DOI:10.3406/rei.1998.1709
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    Web page: http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/revue/rei

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