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Fonctionnaires d'État et bourgeoisie urbaine en Allemagne

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  • Stefan Brakensiek
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    Abstract

    [ger] Der Beitrag resümiert die Debatte in der deutschen Geschichtswissenschaft um Stadt und Bürgertum in der Neuzeit und ihre Bedeutung für die Entwicklung moderner politischer Institutionen. Ausgehend von der Frage, wie sich das Verhdltnis zwischen den Amtsträgern der erstarkenden Territorialstaaten und den stadtbürgerlichen Eliten zwischen dem 16. und dem 19. Jahrhundert gestaltete, wird der Wandel der politischen Kultur um 1800 im Übergang vom Alten Reich zum Deutschen Bund neu gedeutet. Für das Zeitalter des Absolutismus rekonstruiert der Artikel eine überwiegend konsensuale Herrschaftspraxis, in deren Rahmen die städtischen Magistrate eine vom Fürsten „beauftragte Selbstverwaltung" ausübten. Davon heben sich die Konflikte der frühkonstitutionelle Epoche ab, als der Konsens zwischen den Vertretern der monarchischen Anstaltsstaaten und dem städtischen Bürgertum angesichts divergierender Zukunftsentwürfe prekär wurde: Dem zunehmenden Steuerungspotential der reformierten Bürokratien standen die wachsenden Anspruche auf politische Partizipation von Seiten der Burger gegenuber. Gleichwohl sah die Mehrheit der Stadtbürger und der Staatsbeamten in der konstitutionellen Monarchie die ideale Staatsform: Von einem grundsätzlichen Widerspruch zwischen der Burokratie und dem Stadtburgertum kann deshalb nicht gesprochen werden. [eng] The article summarizes the debate in German historiography on the development of towns and middle classes and its impact on modern political institutions. Basing on research about the relationship between state-officials and municipal elites (16th to 19th century), it reconsiders the crucial change of political culture around 1800 in the course of the transition from the Holy Empire to the German Federation. For the old regime the article reconstructs a mainly consensual princely reign over the towns, leaving "self-government at the prince 's command" to the municipal councils. This differs from the history of conflict in the epoque of early constitutionalism: due to diverging social and political concepts, the traditional consensus between the representatives of the monarchical state and the burghers of the towns eroded. The growing power of the modernized bureaucracies was challenged by the citizens' urging demand for political participation. Nevertheless most of the state-officials and the burghers agreed in constitutional monarchy to be the ideal form of governance. Therefore, a fundamental contradiction between bureaucracy and citenzens could not be detected.

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    File URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.3406/hes.2005.2547
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    File URL: http://www.persee.fr/articleAsPDF/hes_0752-5702_2005_num_24_2_2547/hes_0752-5702_2005_num_24_2_2547.pdf?mode=light
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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Programme National Persée in its journal Histoire, économie et société.

    Volume (Year): 24 (2005)
    Issue (Month): 2 ()
    Pages: 253-278

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    Handle: RePEc:prs:hiseco:hes_0752-5702_2005_num_24_2_2547

    Note: DOI:10.3406/hes.2005.2547
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    Web page: http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/revue/hes

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