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Une réhabilitation? Les justices seigneuriales dans la France du XVIIIe siècle

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  • Benoît Garnot
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    Abstract

    [fre] Les justices seigneuriales françaises continuent à fonctionner jusqu'à la fin de l'Ancien Régime, le plus souvent à la satisfaction générale. Elles connaissent deux principaux domaines d'activité: le traitement de la petite délinquance et les diverses formes de juridiction civile gracieuse. Les affaires considérées comme ressortissant du « petit criminel », quand elles ne s'interrompent pas dès le dépôt de la plainte, sont d'abord traitées selon la procédure prévue par l'ordonnance criminelle de 1670 (procédure inquisitoire), et ensuite, dans la majorité des cas, soit le juge passe à la procédure civile (c'est la «civilisation» de la procédure), soit (c'est le cas le plus fréquent) il intègre à la procédure des pratiques de conciliation qui l'interrompent de fait. Une autre partie des déviances similaires est traitée non pas au « petit criminel », mais dans le cadre des infractions de police. Les justices seigneuriales sanctionnent peu, avec des amendes d'un faible montant: cette mansuétude s'explique par le fait qu'elles cherchent surtout à mener à des conciliations, à contrôler et à prévenir, plutôt qu'à réprimer. Ces manières habituelles de procéder montrent la complémentarité de la justice et de l'infrajustice. [eng] The french seigniorial courts continue to act up to the end of the Old Regime, as often as not at general satisfaction. They have two principal activities: the treatment of little delinquency and the varied forms of gracious civil jurisdiction. The cases held to belong to « little criminal», when they are not stopped as soon as the complaint has been lodged, are first treated according to the procedure which is provided by the criminal ordinance of 1670 (inquisitorial procedure), and after, in the majority of cases, either the judge passes to civil procedure (it is the "civilisation" of the procedure), either (that's the most frequent) he joins to the procedure some conciliation ' s practices which stop it in fact. Another part of similar déviances is not treated at the "little criminal", but within the framework of police's infractions. The seigniorial courts penalize little, with fines of low amount: this mansuétude can be explained because they principally try driving to conciliations, supervising and preventing, rather than repressing. These usual ways of proceeding prove that justice and infrajustice are complementary.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Programme National Persée in its journal Histoire, économie et société.

    Volume (Year): 24 (2005)
    Issue (Month): 2 ()
    Pages: 221-232

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    Handle: RePEc:prs:hiseco:hes_0752-5702_2005_num_24_2_2545

    Note: DOI:10.3406/hes.2005.2545
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    Web page: http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/revue/hes

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