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Spéculation et société : les grands travaux à Paris au XIXe siècle

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  • Alain Faure
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    Abstract

    [fre] Cet article constitue l'ébauche d'une réflexion sur l'histoire sociale de l'espace parisien entre 1750 et 1850. Une contradiction se fait jour à partir de 1750 entre les réalités urbaines et les aspirations des élites municipales: l'idéal édilitaire de la circulation de l'air et l'invention de la maison de rapport, nouvelle forme urbaine qui supposait des parcelles de grande étendue, se heurtent à la propriété foncière dans les quartiers du centre. Les riches tendent à quitter le centre pour s'installer dans les faubourgs et en banlieue. Avant même l'intervention d'Haussmann, c'est sans doute la grande peur politique et sociale de 1848 qui provoqua le début de résolution de cette contradiction, par le biais d'une politique d'emprunt et de nouvelles règles d'hygiène publique. La préfecture d'Haussmann représente le moment où la ville entra résolument dans un nouveau cours, marqué d'avance par le jeu des forces en présence et conduisant à la reconquête du centre. Mais la nécessité d'intégrer la ville annexée en 1860 fut bien aperçue par le préfet; en même temps, ses choix personnels (la constitution d'un grand ouest bourgeois par exemple) entraînaient l'espace urbain dans des directions inédites. [eng] This article summarises some preliminary thinking about the social history of urban space in Paris between 1750 and 1850. From 1750 on, a contradiction began to emerge between the realities of the city and the aspirations of its municipal elites: the civic ideal of good circulation of air, and the invention of town houses for letting, a new urban form which presupposed large plots of land, both came into conflict with the actual patterns of land ownership in the central neighbourhoods of the capital. The rich tended to leave the centre for the outlying districts, the faubourgs, and for the suburbs. Even before Haussmann's major works during the Second Empire, however, new policies of public loans and new bye-laws on public hygiene, provoked by the great social and political fear of the year 1848, had already begun to resolve this conflict. But the period ofHaussmann's prefecture clearly represents the moment when the city entered into a new period, marked by the interplay of the forces already present and leading to the re-conquest of the city centre. The prefect was also aware of the necessity of integrating the outer arrondissements of the city, annexed in 1860. At the same time, his personal choices - the transformation of the west into a bourgeois residential zone, for example - also began to lead the capitals urban space in entirely novel directions.

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    File URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.3406/hes.2004.2433
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    Article provided by Programme National Persée in its journal Histoire, économie et société.

    Volume (Year): 23 (2004)
    Issue (Month): 3 ()
    Pages: 433-448

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    Handle: RePEc:prs:hiseco:hes_0752-5702_2004_num_23_3_2433

    Note: DOI:10.3406/hes.2004.2433
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    Web page: http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/revue/hes

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