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Fécondité et milieu social

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  • Guy Desplanques
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    Abstract

    [fre] Les générations de femmes nées durant l'entre-deux-guerres ont été plus fécondes que les précédentes : leurs enfants sont ceux du baby-boom qui a suivi la seconde guerre mondiale. Par rapport aux générations précédentes, les familles sans enfant et les familles nombreuses ont régressé, au profit d'un modèle familial à deux ou trois enfants. Parmi les couples mariés dont la descendance est complète en 1982, ceux où le mari est ouvrier ou agriculteur ont le plus d'enfants, ceux des catégories moyennes, indépendants, professions intermédiaires, en ont le moins; la fécondité est meilleure chez les cadres et les professions libérales. On retrouve ainsi la courbe en U, déjà observée pour les femmes des générations antérieures. Cette même courbe se retrouve aussi selon le milieu social d'origine des femmes et selon leur niveau de diplôme. Cependant ces divers facteurs interfèrent; en particulier, une trajectoire sociale ascendante est un facteur de réduction de la fécondité. Le constat est différent si l'on tient compte de l'ensemble des femmes, mariées ou non. Ce sont les femmes les plus diplômées, plus souvent restées célibataires, qui sont alors les moins fécondes. Depuis vingt ans, la fécondité a fortement chuté. Dans ce mouvement, le haut de l'échelle sociale a légèrement précédé l'ensemble de la société. Au début des années quatre-vingts, les femmes les moins diplômées restent de loin les plus fécondes, mais les comportements se sont un peu rapprochés. [eng] Fertility and social milieu - The generations of women born between the two world wars has been more prolific than those that preceded them: their children constitute the baby-boom which followed the Second World War. In relation to previous generations, families without children and large families have regressed, giving way to a model family of two or three children. Among the married couples whose descendent» could be established in 1982, those where the husband was a laborer or a farmer had the most children and those where the husband belonged to average categories, was self-employed or was in the intermediary occupations had the least. The fertility rate was better among "cadres" and the professions. Thus, the U curve, already observed for women of previous generations, is found again. This same curve reappears also in considering women's social origins and their educational level. These diverse factors, however, interfere with each other; in particular, upward social mobility is a factor in the reduction of the fertility. The findings are different if the entire category of women, married or not, is taken into consideration. The most educated women, who have more often remained unmarried, were the least prolific. For twenty years, the fertility rate has been sharply dropping. In this movement, the top of the social scale has slightly preceded society as a whole. At the beginning of the 1980's, the least educated women remain by far the most prolific, but forms of behavior at different social levels have become somewhat less different. [spa] Fecundidad y ambiente social - Las generaciones de mujeres nacidas durante el período de entre ambas guerras fueron mas fecundas que las que les precedieron: sus hijos son los del « baby boom» que siguió a la segunda guerra mundial. Con relación a las generaciones anteriores, los matrimonios sin hijos y las familias numerosas fueron decreciendo en beneficio de un modelo familiar de dos o tres hijos. Entre las parejas casadas cuya descendencia era completa en 1982, las que contaban un marido obrero o agricultor son las que mas hijos cuentan, las de mediana categoria, independientes, profesiones intermedias las que menos hijos tienen; la fecundidad es mayor entre cuadros dirigentes y profesiones liberales. Aparece así la curva en forma de U, la que ya se pudo observar con relación a las mujeres de las generaciones anteriores. Dicha curva aparece también según ambiente social de origon de las mujeres y conforme a su grado de estudios. No obstante, estos di versos factores interfieren; en especial, una trayectoria social ascendente es un factor de aminoración de la fecundidad. La averiguación difiere si se tiene en cuenta el conjunto de las mujeres casadas o no. Las mujeres mas tituladas, las que a menudo permanecen solteras, son entonces las de menor fecundidad. De veinte anos acá, la fecundidad ha decrecido sumamente. Dentro de este movimiento, la parte superior de la escala social procedió algo el conjunto de la sociedad. A principios de los anos del ochenta, las mujeres menos tituladas eran de lejos las mas fecundas, pero los comportamientos se han ido asemejando algo.

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    File URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.3406/estat.1985.4955
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    File URL: http://www.persee.fr/articleAsPDF/estat_0336-1454_1985_num_175_1_4955/estat_0336-1454_1985_num_175_1_4955.pdf?mode=light
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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Programme National Persée in its journal Economie et statistique.

    Volume (Year): 175 (1985)
    Issue (Month): 1 ()
    Pages: 21-38

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    Handle: RePEc:prs:ecstat:estat_0336-1454_1985_num_175_1_4955

    Note: DOI:10.3406/estat.1985.4955
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    Web page: http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/revue/estat

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