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Efeitos da mudança de emprego e da migração interestadual sobre os salários no Brasil formal: evidências a partir de dados em painel

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  • Ricardo da Silva Freguglia
  • Thais Salzer Procópio

Abstract

Este artigo investiga os diferenciais salariais decorrentes da mudança de emprego e da mobilidade interestadual dos trabalhadores do mercado de trabalho formal brasileiro. Em especial, analisa-se a situação em que os trabalhadores mudam de emprego, sem migrarem entre municípios, buscando identificar se as perdas salariais associadas à mobilidade do trabalhador podem ocorrer devido à troca de emprego (efeito firma), mas não necessariamente como consequência da migração. A partir dos dados em painel da Raismigra, fornecida pelo Ministério do Trabalho e Emprego (MTE), abrangendo os anos de 1995 a 2006, os diferenciais salariais são estimados com o controle da heterogeneidade não observada. São realizados testes de robustez para verificar a correta identificação da parcela referente aos efeitos interestaduais e de firma sobre os diferenciais salariais dos trabalhadores formais brasileiros. Os principais resultados obtidos indicam que, após o controle dos efeitos fixos dos trabalhadores, a mudança de emprego e a migração intermunicipal são importantes fatores a serem controlados para a correta identificação dos diferenciais salariais interestaduais. Constata-se, ainda, que a magnitude do efeito firma é menor que a magnitude do efeito das migrações, sejam elas interestaduais ou intermunicipais, sobre os salários no setor formal, mas, ainda assim, é significativa. Effects of job change and interstate migration on wages in the Brazilian formal labor market: evidence from panel data :: This study examines the wage differentials arising from the job change and from migration of workers among states in the formal labor market in Brazil. Specifically, we investigate the situation where workers shift their job without migrating among states to identify whether the wage losses associated with worker mobility may occur due to changing jobs (firm effect). To this end, we use estimates to the wages differentials by pooled OLS, fixed effects, and random effects methods, applied to the database from Raismigra (Labor Ministry), a panel of data covering the years 1995 to 2006. We also performed robustness tests to identify the correct identification of the part relating to the regional’s effects and firm’s effects on the wage differentials of Brazilian’s workers in the formal market. The main results indicate that, after controlling for worker’s fixed effects, the change interstate migration and employment are important factors in determining wage differentials. After a significant reduction in the estimated coefficients of the state’s dummies and of firm change dummy - indicative of the importance of unobserved heterogeneity - the magnitude of the firm effect is lower than the magnitude of the effect of migration on wages in the formal sector.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada in its journal Pesquisa e Planejamento Econômico.

Volume (Year): 43 (2013)
Issue (Month): 2 (ago.)
Pages: 255-278

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Handle: RePEc:ppe:ppeart:y:2013:v:43:i:2:p:255-278

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Keywords: diferenciais salariais; efeito firma; migração interestadual; efeitos fixos; wage differentials; firm effect; interstate migration; fixed effects;

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