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Educação, salários e a alocação de trabalhadores entre tarefas: teoria e evidências para o Brasil

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  • Reynaldo Fernandes
  • Naercio Aquino Menezes Filho

Abstract

Esse artigo constrói um modelo competitivo que relaciona os salários relativos e a alocação de trabalhadores com diferentes níveis de educação à demanda e à oferta de competências, fornecendo evidências empíricas para o caso do Brasil. O modelo assume que todos os trabalhadores qualificados realizam tarefas complexas, que todos os trabalhadores não qualificados executam tarefas simples e que os intermediários podem fazer ambas. A distribuição dos trabalhadores intermediários nas tarefas é gerada endogenamente para maximizar o produto total da economia. O modelo é simulado empiricamente para a economia brasileira entre 1981 e 2009. Os resultados sugerem que houve um aumento na demanda relativa por trabalhadores qualificados nas tarefas complexas e pelos intermediários em tarefas simples. Sem esses choques de demanda, os salários relativos dos trabalhadores intermediários teriam se reduzido ainda mais e os dos trabalhadores qualificados teriam declinado nos últimos 30 anos. Supply and Demand for Skill, Relative Wages and the Allocation of Workers to Tasks: Theory and Evidence from Brazil :: This article develops a competitive model that relates the relative wages and allocation to tasks of workers with different education levels to the demand and supply of skills, providing empirical evidence for the case of Brazil. The model assumes that all skilled workers perform complex tasks, unskilled workers perform simple tasks and semiskilled workers can do both. The distribution of semi-skilled workers across tasks is generated endogenously to maximize total output of the economy. We conduct an empirical simulation of the model for the Brazilian economy in the period 1981-2009. The results suggest that there has been a rise in the relative demand for skilled workers in complex tasks and for semiskilled workers in simple tasks. Absent these demand shocks, the relative wages of the semiskilled workers would have fallen by more and the relative wages of the skilled workers would have fallen instead of rising in Brazil over the last 30 years.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada in its journal Pesquisa e Planejamento Econômico.

Volume (Year): 42 (2012)
Issue (Month): 3 (dez.)
Pages: 311-328

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Handle: RePEc:ppe:ppeart:y:2012:v:42:i:3:p:311-328

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Keywords: educação; salários; tecnologia; América Latina; Brasil; education; wages; technology; Latin America; Brazil;

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