On Measuring Inclusiveness of Growth in Pakistan
AbstractUsing social opportunity function approach, this work assesses, firstly, the change in and access to education and employment opportunities available to the population and secondly, how equitably these opportunities are distributed. Opportunity Index (OI) and Equity Index of Opportunities (EIO) are calculated to measure and quantify the extent of progress made in these two most important socio-economic components of development. Based on data, extracted from Pakistan Social and Living Standards Measurement (PSLM) Surveys of 1998-99 and 2007-08, the present work finds that growth process has resulted in increased inequalities both in education and employment opportunities over the study period. Average opportunities available to population increased for education while a decline in average employment opportunities is documented in 2007-08 as compared to 1998-99. OI registered an increase for primary and secondary levels of education. EIO improved at primary level, remained stagnant for secondary level and decreased for literacy rate over the time. Moreover, EIO for employment opportunities, suggesting equitable distribution for employment and paid employment, registered a decrease and opportunities distribution turn inequitable when calculated based on average monthly income earned. Findings of the paper suggest that policies should be focused to actively engage the marginalised groups of the society in growth process through improvement in higher education and more equitable distribution of opportunities.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoArticle provided by Pakistan Institute of Development Economics in its journal The Pakistan Development Review.
Volume (Year): 50 (2011)
Issue (Month): 4 ()
Inclusive Growth; Inequality; Opportunity Curve; Opportunity Index; Equity Index of Opportunities; Pakistan;
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- C46 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods: Special Topics - - - Specific Distributions
- D63 - Microeconomics - - Welfare Economics - - - Equity, Justice, Inequality, and Other Normative Criteria and Measurement
- E24 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment - - - Employment; Unemployment; Wages; Intergenerational Income Distribution
- I24 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Education and Inequality
- O12 - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Microeconomic Analyses of Economic Development
You can help add them by filling out this form.
reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.Access and download statisticsgeneral information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Khurram Iqbal).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.