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The Determination of Capital Structure: Is National Culture a Missing Piece to the Puzzle?

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Author Info

  • Andy C W Chui

    (Hong Kong Polytechnic University)

  • Alison E Lloyd

    (Hong Kong Polytechnic University)

  • Chuck C Y Kwok

    (University of South Carolina)

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    Abstract

    Why does knowing the nationality of the company help predict its financial leverage? Differences in institutional backgrounds provide only a partial answer to this question. This study suggests that national culture affects corporate capital structures. Empirical hypotheses, drawn from financial models and cross-cultural psychology, are tested against a sample of 5591 firms across 22 countries. Results show that countries with high scores on the cultural dimensions of “conservatism” and “mastery” tend to have lower corporate debt ratios. The effects are strong and remain significant even after accounting for differences in economic performance, legal systems, financial institutions, and some other well-known determinants of debt ratios.© 2002 JIBS. Journal of International Business Studies (2002) 33, 99–127

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Palgrave Macmillan in its journal Journal of International Business Studies.

    Volume (Year): 33 (2002)
    Issue (Month): 1 (March)
    Pages: 99-127

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    Handle: RePEc:pal:jintbs:v:33:y:2002:i:1:p:99-127

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    Web page: http://www.palgrave-journals.com/

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    Postal: Palgrave Macmillan Journals, Subscription Department, Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire RG21 6XS, UK
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    Cited by:
    1. Ramirez, Andres & Kwok, Chuck C.Y., 2010. "Settling the debate on multinational capital structure using the CEPR measure," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 20(4-5), pages 251-271, December.
    2. Lucey, Brian M. & Zhang, QiYu, 2010. "Does cultural distance matter in international stock market comovement? Evidence from emerging economies around the world," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 11(1), pages 62-78, March.
    3. Stone, Zita & Filippaios, Fragkiskos & Stoian, Carmen, 2014. "Equity culture development in Central and Eastern Europe: The role of institutional and managerial factors," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(C), pages 234-263.
    4. Ding, Yuan & Jeanjean, Thomas & Stolowy, Herve, 2005. "Why do national GAAP differ from IAS? The role of culture," The International Journal of Accounting, Elsevier, vol. 40(4), pages 325-350.
    5. Revilla, Elena & Sáenz, María Jesús, 2014. "Supply chain disruption management: Global convergence vs national specificity," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 67(6), pages 1123-1135.
    6. Kandogan, Yener, 2012. "An improvement to Kogut and Singh measure of cultural distance considering the relationship among different dimensions of culture," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 26(2), pages 196-203.
    7. Brian Lucey & Colm KEarney & Ciaran MacAnBhaird, 2012. "Culture and capital structure in small and medium sized firms," The Institute for International Integration Studies Discussion Paper Series iiisdp419, IIIS.
    8. Arosa, Clara Maria Verduch & Richie, Nivine & Schuhmann, Peter W., 2014. "The impact of culture on market timing in capital structure choices," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(C), pages 178-192.
    9. Aggarwal, Raj & Kearney, Colm & Lucey, Brian, 2012. "Gravity and culture in foreign portfolio investment," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 36(2), pages 525-538.
    10. Fidrmuc, Jana P. & Jacob, Marcus, 2010. "Culture, agency costs, and dividends," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 38(3), pages 321-339, September.
    11. Wang, Daphne & Esqueda, Omar A., 2014. "National cultural effects on leverage decisions: Evidence from emerging-market ADRs," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(C), pages 152-177.
    12. : Jana P. Fidrmuc & Marcus Jacob, 2010. "Culture, Agency Costs and Dividends," Working Papers wpn10-01, Warwick Business School, Finance Group.
    13. David Collison & Stuart Cross & John Ferguson & David Power & Lorna Stevenson, 2012. "Legal Determinants of External Finance Revisited: The Inverse Relationship Between Investor Protection and Societal Well-Being," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 108(3), pages 393-410, July.
    14. Lievenbrück, Martin & Schmid, Thomas, 2014. "Why do firms (not) hedge? — Novel evidence on cultural influence," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 25(C), pages 92-106.
    15. Kayo, Eduardo K. & Kimura, Herbert, 2011. "Hierarchical determinants of capital structure," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(2), pages 358-371, February.
    16. Chang, Kiyoung & Noorbakhsh, Abbas, 2009. "Does national culture affect international corporate cash holdings?," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 19(5), pages 323-342, December.
    17. Sinkovics, Alfréd & Némethné Gál, Andrea, 2007. "A Magyarországon működő nem pénzügyi vállalkozások forrás- és tőkeszerkezetének empirikus vizsgálata, 1995-2003
      [An empirical examination of the resource and capital structure of non-f
      ," Közgazdasági Szemle (Economic Review - monthly of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences), Közgazdasági Szemle Alapítvány (Economic Review Foundation), vol. 0(4), pages 350-375.
    18. Brian M. Lucey, QiYu Zhang* School of Business, Trinity College Dublin, Ireland, 2009. "Emerging Markets Capital Structure and Financial Integration," The Institute for International Integration Studies Discussion Paper Series iiisdp305, IIIS.
    19. Dirk Clercq & Dominic Lim & Chang Oh, 2014. "Hierarchy and conservatism in the contributions of resources to entrepreneurial activity," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 42(3), pages 507-522, March.
    20. Breuer, Wolfgang & Rieger, M. Oliver & Soypak, K. Can, 2014. "The behavioral foundations of corporate dividend policy a cross-country analysis," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 247-265.
    21. Kandogan, Yener, 2011. "Determinants of individuals' preference for cross-cultural literacy: Role of international trade potential," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 46(3), pages 328-336, July.
    22. Zheng, Xiaolan & El Ghoul, Sadok & Guedhami, Omrane & Kwok, Chuck C.Y., 2012. "National culture and corporate debt maturity," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 36(2), pages 468-488.
    23. Melnyk, Valentyna & Giarratana, Marco & Torres, Anna, 2014. "Marking your trade: Cultural factors in the prolongation of trademarks," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 67(4), pages 478-485.
    24. Antonczyk, Ron Christian & Salzmann, Astrid Juliane, 2014. "Overconfidence and optimism: The effect of national culture on capital structure," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(C), pages 132-151.

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