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Multinational Corporations vs. Domestic Corporations: International Environmental Factors and Determinants of Capital Structure

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  • Kwang Chul Lee

    (Institute for Communications Research)

  • Chuck C Y Kwok

    (University of South Carolina)

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    Abstract

    This paper examines whether or not U.S.-based multinational corporations (MNCs) have different capital structures than U.S. domestic corporations (DCs) and if so, what causes the differences. In explaining the difference between the capital structures of MNCs and DCs, previous studies tended to directly discuss the relationships between international environmental factors (e.g., political risk, foreign exchange risk) and the capital structure. A framework of analysis is proposed in this paper that examines the influence of environmental factors on the firm-related capital structure determinants (e.g., agency costs, bankruptcy costs) that in turn affect the capital structure of the MNC. Among the determinants that are examined, more emphasis is placed on the discussion of agency costs since no previous studies have applied this concept in the international arena. Empirical tests were conducted to investigate whether MNCs are significantly different from DCs regarding agency costs of dept, bankruptcy costs, and capital structure. Contrary to conventional wisdom, the empirical findings show that MNCs do not have lower bankruptcy costs and that they tend to have lower debt ratios than DCs.© 1988 JIBS. Journal of International Business Studies (1988) 19, 195–217

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Palgrave Macmillan in its journal Journal of International Business Studies.

    Volume (Year): 19 (1988)
    Issue (Month): 2 (June)
    Pages: 195-217

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    Handle: RePEc:pal:jintbs:v:19:y:1988:i:2:p:195-217

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    Cited by:
    1. Akbel, Basak & Schnitzer, Monika, 2011. "Creditor rights and debt allocation within multinationals," Munich Reprints in Economics 20174, University of Munich, Department of Economics.
    2. McMillan, David G. & Camara, Omar, 2012. "Dynamic capital structure adjustment: US MNCs & DCs," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 22(5), pages 278-301.
    3. Elango, B., 2010. "Influence of industry type on the relationship between international operations and risk," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 63(3), pages 303-309, March.
    4. Aggarwal, Raj & Kyaw, NyoNyo Aung, 2010. "Capital structure, dividend policy, and multinationality: Theory versus empirical evidence," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 19(2), pages 140-150, March.
    5. Singh, Manohar & Davidson, Wallace III & Suchard, Jo-Ann, 2003. "Corporate diversification strategies and capital structure," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 43(1), pages 147-167.
    6. Aggarwal, Raj & Kyaw, NyoNyo A., 2008. "Internal capital networks as a source of MNC competitive advantage: Evidence from foreign subsidiary capital structure decisions," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 22(3), pages 409-439, September.
    7. Ramirez, Andres & Kwok, Chuck C.Y., 2010. "Settling the debate on multinational capital structure using the CEPR measure," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 20(4-5), pages 251-271, December.
    8. Oesterle, Michael-Jörg & Richta, Hannah Noriko & Fisch, Jan Hendrik, 2013. "The influence of ownership structure on internationalization," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 22(1), pages 187-201.
    9. Boardman, Anthony E. & Shapiro, Daniel M. & Vining, Aidan R., 1997. "The role of agency costs in explaining the superior performance of foreign MNE subsidiaries," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 6(3), pages 295-317, June.
    10. Mittoo, Usha R. & Zhang, Zhou, 2008. "The capital structure of multinational corporations: Canadian versus U.S. evidence," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 14(5), pages 706-720, December.
    11. Keshari, Pradeep Kumar, 2013. "Comparative performance of foreign affiliates and domestic firms in the Indian machinery industry," MPRA Paper 33076, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 20 Apr 2013.
    12. Reid W. Click & Paul Harrison, 2000. "Does multinationality matter? Evidence of value destruction in U.S. multinational corporations," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2000-21, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    13. Joliet, Robert & Muller, Aline, 2013. "Capital structure effects of international expansion," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 23(5), pages 375-393.
    14. Mari Avarmaa & Aaro Hazak & Kadri Männasoo, 2011. "Capital structure formation in multinational and local companies in the Baltic States," Baltic Journal of Economics, Baltic International Centre for Economic Policy Studies, vol. 11(1), pages 125-146, July.
    15. Nedelchev, Miroslav, 2010. "Корпоративно Управление На Финансови Групи (Спазвай И Обяснявай)
      [Corporate Governance of Financial Groups (Comply and Explain)]
      ," MPRA Paper 52249, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    16. Doukas, John A. & Pantzalis, Christos, 2003. "Geographic diversification and agency costs of debt of multinational firms," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 9(1), pages 59-92, January.
    17. Shou-Min Tsao & Guang-Zheng Chen, 2012. "The impact of internationalization on performance and innovation: The moderating effects of ownership concentration," Asia Pacific Journal of Management, Springer, vol. 29(3), pages 617-642, September.
    18. Mishra, Dev & Tannous, George, 2010. "Securities laws in the host countries and the capital structure of US multinationals," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 19(3), pages 483-500, June.
    19. Kayo, Eduardo K. & Kimura, Herbert, 2011. "Hierarchical determinants of capital structure," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(2), pages 358-371, February.
    20. Chkir, Imed Eddine & Cosset, Jean-Claude, 2001. "Diversification strategy and capital structure of multinational corporations," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 11(1), pages 17-37, February.
    21. De Maeseneire, Wouter & Claeys, Tine, 2012. "SMEs, foreign direct investment and financial constraints: The case of Belgium," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 21(3), pages 408-424.
    22. Carpano, Claudio & Rahman, Manzur & Roth, Kendall & Michel, John G., 2006. "International competition in mature, localized industries: Evidence from the U.S. furniture industry," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 59(5), pages 630-637, May.

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