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Assessing Measures of Financial Openness and Integration

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  • Dennis Quinn
  • Martin Schindler
  • A Maria Toyoda

Abstract

Researchers have available to them numerous indicators of financial openness and integration, many of which have yielded substantially differing results in past research, for example, on the relationship of financial openness or integration with economic growth. This article reviews the main indicators and finds that de jure vs. de facto indicators yield systematically different growth results. Among de jure indicators, sample differences account for much of the variation in growth results, with a weaker impact found in more recent data and among advanced economies. It also finds that many indicators capture different and useful facets of financial openness, such as intensive vs. extensive measures, and de facto vs. de jure. A small minority of indices suffer weaknesses that make them not useful for rigorous economic analysis, most notably the Investment Freedom Index by the Heritage Foundation.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Palgrave Macmillan in its journal IMF Economic Review.

Volume (Year): 59 (2011)
Issue (Month): 3 (August)
Pages: 488-522

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Handle: RePEc:pal:imfecr:v:59:y:2011:i:3:p:488-522

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Cited by:
  1. Dennis Reinhardt & Luca Antonio Ricci & Thierry Tressel, 2012. "International Capital Flows and Development - Financial Openness Matters," IHEID Working Papers 11-2012, Economics Section, The Graduate Institute of International Studies.
  2. Axel Dreher, 2013. "Joseph P. Joyce. 2013. The IMF and global financial crises. Phoenix rising? (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press)," The Review of International Organizations, Springer, vol. 8(3), pages 415-418, September.
  3. Hiro Ito & Masahiro Kawai, 2012. "New Measures of the Trilemma Hypothesis : Implications for Asia," Finance Working Papers 23331, East Asian Bureau of Economic Research.
  4. Ito, Hiro & Chinn, Menzie, 2014. "The Rise of the “Redback” and the People’s Republic of China’s Capital Account Liberalization: An Empirical Analysis of the Determinants of Invoicing Currencies," ADBI Working Papers 473, Asian Development Bank Institute.
  5. Hooley, John, 2013. "Bringing down the Great Wall? Global implications of capital account liberalisation in China," Bank of England Quarterly Bulletin, Bank of England, vol. 53(4), pages 304-315.
  6. Ma, Guonan & McCauley, Robert N., 2013. "Is China or India more financially open?," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 39(C), pages 6-27.
  7. Tamim Bayoumi & Christian Saborowski, 2012. "Accounting for Reserves," IMF Working Papers 12/302, International Monetary Fund.
  8. Cerutti, Eugenio & Hale, Galina & Minoiu, Camelia, 2014. "Financial crises and the composition of cross-border lending," Working Paper Series 2014-20, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco.
  9. Prati, Alessandro & Schindler, Martin & Valenzuela, Patricio, 2012. "Who benefits from capital account liberalization? Evidence from firm-level credit ratings data," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(6), pages 1649-1673.
  10. Ila Patnaik & Ajay Shah, 2012. "Did the Indian Capital Controls Work as a Tool of Macroeconomic Policy?," IMF Economic Review, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 60(3), pages 439-464, September.
  11. Franklin ALLEN & Elena CARLETTI & Jun 'QJ' QIAN & Patricio VALENZUELA, 2012. "Financial Intermediation, Markets, and Alternative Financial Sectors," Economics Working Papers ECO2012/11, European University Institute.
  12. Todea, Alexandru & Pleşoianu, Anita, 2013. "The influence of foreign portfolio investment on informational efficiency: Empirical evidence from Central and Eastern European stock markets," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 33(C), pages 34-41.
  13. Straetmans, Stefan & Versteeg, Roald & Wolff, Christian C, 2008. "Are Capital Controls in the Foreign Exchange Market Effective?," CEPR Discussion Papers 6727, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  14. Christiansen, Lone & Schindler, Martin & Tressel, Thierry, 2013. "Growth and structural reforms: A new assessment," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 89(2), pages 347-356.

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