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Impact sur la pauvreté et perceptions de la crise économique au Sénégal: Analyses quantitative et qualitative / Impact on Poverty and Perceptions of the Economic Crisis in Senegal: Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis

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  • Abdou Fall
  • Léa Salmon
  • Quentin Wodon
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    Abstract

    Cet article analyse l'impact de la crise économique (hausse des prix des denrées alimentaires et pétroliers et crise financière) sur la situation des ménages au Sénégal en se basant à la fois sur une analyse quantitative de données d'enquête auprès des ménages et une analyse qualitative auprès de groupes de discussion. Avant la crise, le Sénégal avait connu une réduction impressionnante de la pauvreté, et cela demeure vrai que l'on utilise des mesures objectives de la pauvreté fondées sur la consommation ou les évaluations subjectives des ménages. En dépit de ces progrès, de nombreux ménages disaient toujours n’avoir pas été en mesure de satisfaire bon nombre de leurs besoins de base. Les simulations réalisées pour cette étude suggèrent que la récente hausse des prix alimentaires et pétroliers a eu un impact négatif important sur la pauvreté. Les données qualitatives recueillies auprès de groupes de discussion et d'entrevues individuelles confirment que les conditions de vie d'une grande partie de la population sont devenues plus difficiles. De nombreux ménages parlent d'un manque d'activités génératrices de revenus ainsi que des menaces que la crise induit sur leurs moyens de subsistance traditionnels. La hausse du coût des denrées de base, des niveaux plus élevés d'endettement, et un accès limité au crédit ont aussi contribué à une détérioration du niveau de vie. Les ménages ont des moyens limités pour faire face à la crise au-delà de l'augmentation de leurs heures de travail, surtout pour les femmes, et ils ajustent leurs habitudes de consommation alimentaire en faveur de denrées de qualité inférieure. La crise a aussi accru les tensions au sein de certaines communautés, et elle semble affaiblir les mécanismes traditionnels de solidarité entre les ménages. Ainsi apparait l’image d'une société ayant réalisé des avancées considérables au cours des quinze dernières années, mais qui demeure vulnérable aux chocs externes et internes. This article analyzes the impact of the economic crisis (rising food and oil prices and financial crisis) on the situation of households in Senegal using both a quantitative analysis of household survey data and a qualitative analysis from focus groups. Before the crisis, Senegal had experienced a dramatic reduction of poverty, and this is observed whether one relies on objective measures of poverty based on consumption or subjective assessments by households. Despite this progress, many household were however still not able to meet many of their basic needs. Simulations conducted for this study suggest that the recent rise in food and oil prices has had a negative impact on poverty. Qualitative data collected through focus groups and individual interviews confirm that the standards of living have deteriorated. Many households are talking about a lack of income generating activities and threats that the crisis represents for their traditional livelihoods. The rising cost of basic commodities, higher levels of debt, and limited access to credit also contributed to a deterioration in living standards. Households have limited means to cope with the crisis beyond increasing working hours, especially for women, and adjusting their food consumption patterns, for example by eating food of lower quality. The crisis has also increased tensions in some communities, and it seems to have weakened traditional mechanisms of solidarity between households. What emerges is a country that has made considerable progress over the last fifteen years towards poverty reduction, but that remains vulnerable to external and internal shocks.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Association Africaine pour les Sciences sociales in its journal Perspective Afrique.

    Volume (Year): 5 (2010)
    Issue (Month): 1-3 ()
    Pages: 1-27

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    Handle: RePEc:paf:journl:v:5:y:2010:i:1-3:p:1-27

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    Keywords: Poverty; Economic crisis; Senegal;

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