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Globalization and the Labor Market

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  • MartÌn Rama

Abstract

Does globalization affect labor market outcomes? Can labor market policies mitigate or offset the effects? Would these policies have important side effects on efficiency? This article addresses these questions through an analytical survey of the literature, including several studies under preparation. Some of the studies use new cross-country databases of wages and other labor market indicators. Although all the answers should be considered tentative, some patterns emerge. Different aspects of globalization have different consequences. In the short run wages fall with openness to trade and rise with foreign direct investment. But after a few years the effect of trade on wages becomes positive. Foreign direct investment also increases (substantially) the returns to education. Social protection programs are effective in reducing inequality. Minimum wages, public sector employment, and core labor standards are not. Between these two extremes, collective bargaining works mainly for the middle class. Social protection programs do not adversely affect efficiency, but high public sector employment and trade union membership are associated with weaker performance in the context of adjustment. Copyright 2003, Oxford University Press.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by World Bank Group in its journal The World Bank Research Observer.

Volume (Year): 18 (2003)
Issue (Month): 2 ()
Pages: 159-186

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Handle: RePEc:oup:wbrobs:v:18:y:2003:i:2:p:159-186

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Cited by:
  1. Petia Topalova, 2010. "Factor Immobility and Regional Impacts of Trade Liberalization: Evidence on Poverty from India," American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, American Economic Association, vol. 2(4), pages 1-41, October.
  2. Halit Yanikkaya, 2008. "Is Trade Liberalization a Solution to the Unemployment Problem?," Working Papers 2008/17, Turkish Economic Association.
  3. Pillai, Rajasekharan, 2010. "Labour Market Structure: A Brief Literature Survey," MPRA Paper 27479, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  4. Alexandre SIMONS, 2014. "Delocation, home wages and welfare," Discussion Papers (IRES - Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales) 2014007, Université catholique de Louvain, Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales (IRES).
  5. Wang, Danny T. & Gu, Flora F. & Tse, David K. & Yim, Chi Kin (Bennett), 2013. "When does FDI matter? The roles of local institutions and ethnic origins of FDI," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 22(2), pages 450-465.
  6. Goyal, Ashima, 2005. "New technology and labour Markets: Entrants, outsourcing and matching," MPRA Paper 24620, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  7. Neil Foster, 2012. "Offshoring and Labour Markets," FIW Specials series 003, FIW.
  8. Novella Bottini & Michael Gasiorek, 2009. "Trade and Job Reallocation: Evidence for Morocco," LIUC Papers in Economics 224, Cattaneo University (LIUC).
  9. Petia Topalova, 2005. "Trade Liberalization, Poverty And Inequality: Evidence From Indian Districts," Working Papers id:222, eSocialSciences.
  10. Kim, Il-Ho & Muntaner, Carles & Vahid Shahidi, Faraz & Vives, Alejandra & Vanroelen, Christophe & Benach, Joan, 2012. "Welfare states, flexible employment, and health: A critical review," Health Policy, Elsevier, vol. 104(2), pages 99-127.
  11. Hoekman & Bernard & Winters, L. Alan, 2005. "Trade and employment : stylized facts and research findings," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3676, The World Bank.

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