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Testing for Unit Roots in Small Panels with Short-run and Long-run Cross-sectional Dependencies

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  • Yoosoon Chang
  • Wonho Song

Abstract

An IV approach, using as instruments non-linear transformations of the lagged levels, is explored to test for unit roots in panels with general dependency and heterogeneity across cross-sectional units. We allow not only for the cross-sectional dependencies of innovations, but also for the presence of co-integration across cross-sectional levels. Unbalanced panels and panels with differing individual short-run dynamics and cross-sectionally related dynamics are also permitted. We also more carefully formulate the unit root hypotheses in panels. In particular, using order statistics, we make it possible to test for and against the presence of unit roots in some of the individual units for a given panel. The individual IV t-ratios, which are the bases of our tests, are asymptotically and normally distributed and cross-sectionally independent. Therefore, the critical values of the order statistics as well as the usual average statistic can be easily obtained from simple elementary probability computations. We show via a set of simulations that our tests work well, whereas other existing tests fail to perform properly. As an illustration, we apply our tests to the panels of real exchange rates, and find no evidence for the purchasing power parity hypothesis, which is in sharp contrast with the previous studies. Copyright , Wiley-Blackwell.

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File URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10.1111/j.1467-937X.2009.00549.x
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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Oxford University Press in its journal The Review of Economic Studies.

Volume (Year): 76 (2009)
Issue (Month): 3 ()
Pages: 903-935

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Handle: RePEc:oup:restud:v:76:y:2009:i:3:p:903-935

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Cited by:
  1. Jaunky, Vishal Chandr, 2013. "A cointegration and causality analysis of copper consumption and economic growth in rich countries," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(4), pages 628-639.
  2. Palm, Franz C. & Smeekes, Stephan & Urbain, Jean-Pierre, 2008. "Cross-Sectional Dependence Robust Block Bootstrap Panel Unit Root Tests," Research Memorandum 048, Maastricht University, Maastricht Research School of Economics of Technology and Organization (METEOR).
  3. Kang, Wensheng, 2011. "Housing price dynamics and convergence in high-tech metropolitan economies," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 51(3), pages 283-291, June.
  4. Jaunky, Vishal Chandr, 2012. "Is there a material Kuznets curve for aluminium? evidence from rich countries," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(3), pages 296-307.
  5. Snaith, Stuart, 2012. "The PPP debate: Multiple breaks and cross-sectional dependence," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 115(3), pages 342-344.
  6. Vishal Jaunky, 2013. "Democracy and economic growth in Sub-Saharan Africa: a panel data approach," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 45(2), pages 987-1008, October.
  7. Hanck, Christoph & Demetrescu, Matei & Tarcolea, Adina, 2012. "IV-Based Cointegration Testing in Dependent Panels with Time-Varying Variance," Annual Conference 2012 (Goettingen): New Approaches and Challenges for the Labor Market of the 21st Century 62072, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
  8. Matei Demetrescu & Christoph Hanck, 2013. "Nonlinear IV panel unit root testing under structural breaks in the error variance," Statistical Papers, Springer, vol. 54(4), pages 1043-1066, November.

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