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Carbon Emissions and Income Inequality

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  • Ravallion, Martin
  • Heil, Mark
  • Jalan, Jyotsna

Abstract

We find that the distribution of income matters to aggregate carbon dioxide emissions and hence global warming. Higher inequality, both between and within countries is associated with lower carbon emissions at given average incomes. We also confirm that economic growth generally comes with higher emissions. Thus our results suggest that trade-offs exist between climate control (on the one hand) and both social equity and economic growth (on the other). However, economic growth improves the trade off with equity, and lower inequality improves the trade off with growth. By combining growth with equity, more pro-poor growth processes yield better longer-term trajectories of carbon emissions. Copyright 2000 by Oxford University Press.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Oxford University Press in its journal Oxford Economic Papers.

Volume (Year): 52 (2000)
Issue (Month): 4 (October)
Pages: 651-69

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Handle: RePEc:oup:oxecpp:v:52:y:2000:i:4:p:651-69

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Cited by:
  1. Somlanare Romuald KINDA & Pascale COMBES MOTEL & Jean-Louis COMBES, 2014. "Do Environmental Policies Hurt Trade Performance?," Working Papers 201404, CERDI.
  2. Golley, Jane & Meng, Xin, 2012. "Income inequality and carbon dioxide emissions: The case of Chinese urban households," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(6), pages 1864-1872.
  3. Marschinski, Robert & Lecocq, Franck, 2006. "Do intensity targets control uncertainty better than quotas ? Conditions, calibrations, and caveats," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4033, The World Bank.
  4. Tom Verbeke & M. De Clercq, 2003. "The income-environment relationship: Does a logit model offer an alternative empirical strategy?," Working Papers of Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Ghent University, Belgium 03/192, Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration.
  5. Ezcurra, Roberto, 2007. "Is there cross-country convergence in carbon dioxide emissions?," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(2), pages 1363-1372, February.
  6. Brännlund, Runar & Ghalwash, Tarek, 2008. "The income-pollution relationship and the role of income distribution: An analysis of Swedish household data," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(3), pages 369-387, August.
  7. Coondoo, Dipankor & Dinda, Soumyananda, 2008. "Carbon dioxide emission and income: A temporal analysis of cross-country distributional patterns," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 65(2), pages 375-385, April.
  8. Henri L.F.M. de Groot & Cees A. Withagen & Zhou Minliang, 2001. "Dynamics of China's Regional Development and Pollution," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 01-036/3, Tinbergen Institute.
  9. Ekaterini Panopoulou & Theologos Pantelidis, 2009. "Club Convergence in Carbon Dioxide Emissions," Environmental & Resource Economics, European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 44(1), pages 47-70, September.
  10. Philipp Babcicky, 2013. "Rethinking the Foundations of Sustainability Measurement: The Limitations of the Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI)," Social Indicators Research, Springer, vol. 113(1), pages 133-157, August.
  11. Cantos, José Mª & Balsalobre Lorente, Daniel, 2011. "Las energías renovables en la Curva de Kuznets Ambiental: Una aplicación para España/Renewable Energy in the Environmental Kuznets Curve: An Application to Spain," Estudios de Economía Aplicada, Estudios de Economía Aplicada, vol. 29, pages 667 (32 pag, Agosto.
  12. Juan Antonio Duro Moreno & Emilio Padilla Rosa, 2006. "Análisis de los factores determinantes de las desigualdades internacionales en las emisiones de CO2 per cápita aplicando el enfoque distributivo: una metodología de descomposición por factores de ," Working Papers wpdea0602, Department of Applied Economics at Universitat Autonoma of Barcelona.
  13. Shi, Anqing, 2003. "The impact of population pressure on global carbon dioxide emissions, 1975-1996: evidence from pooled cross-country data," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 44(1), pages 29-42, February.
  14. repec:dgr:uvatin:2001036 is not listed on IDEAS
  15. Dinda, Soumyananda, 2013. "Inclusive Green Growth and Sustainable Development through Productive Consumption," MPRA Paper 50574, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 09 Sep 2013.
  16. Verbeke, Tom & De Clercq, Marc, 2006. "The income-environment relationship: Evidence from a binary response model," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 59(4), pages 419-428, October.
  17. Jakob, Michael & Haller, Markus & Marschinski, Robert, 2012. "Will history repeat itself? Economic convergence and convergence in energy use patterns," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(1), pages 95-104.
  18. Neumayer, Eric, 2002. "Can natural factors explain any cross-country differences in carbon dioxide emissions?," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 30(1), pages 7-12, January.
  19. Elizabeth A. Stanton, 2012. "The Tragedy of Maldistribution: Climate, Sustainability, and Equity," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 4(3), pages 394-411, March.
  20. Zilio, Mariana & Recalde, Marina, 2011. "GDP and environment pressure: The role of energy in Latin America and the Caribbean," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(12), pages 7941-7949.

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