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Are Political Freedoms Converging?

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  • Michael L. Nieswiadomy
  • Mark C. Strazicich

Abstract

This article tests for convergence of freedom using Freedom House's (2002) indices of political rights and civil liberties in 136 countries from 1972 to 2001. Time-series tests, using structural breaks, are employed to test for stochastic and β-convergence. Cross-section tests are performed to examine the impact of legal systems, education, natural resources, economic freedom, and other variables. We find that political freedoms are converging for one-half of the countries. Additionally, we find that the level of freedom is significantly related to the legal system, education, economic freedom, and natural resources. (JEL O57, O40, C3) Copyright 2004, Oxford University Press.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Western Economic Association International in its journal Economic Inquiry.

Volume (Year): 42 (2004)
Issue (Month): 2 (April)
Pages: 323-340

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Handle: RePEc:oup:ecinqu:v:42:y:2004:i:2:p:323-340

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Cited by:
  1. Aidt, T.S. & Gassebner, M., 2007. "Do Autocratic States Trade Less?," Cambridge Working Papers in Economics 0742, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
  2. Marco Barassi & Matthew Cole & Robert Elliott, 2008. "Stochastic Divergence or Convergence of Per Capita Carbon Dioxide Emissions: Re-examining the Evidence," Environmental & Resource Economics, European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 40(1), pages 121-137, May.
  3. Jac Heckelman, 2010. "Relationships among democratic freedoms in the former Soviet Republics: a causality analysis," Constitutional Political Economy, Springer, vol. 21(1), pages 80-96, March.
  4. Narayan, Paresh Kumar & Smyth, Russell, 2006. "Democracy and Economic Growth in China: Evidence from Cointegration and Causality Testing," Review of Applied Economics, Review of Applied Economics, vol. 2(1).
  5. Martin Gassebner & Michael J. Lamla & James Raymond Vreeland, 2013. "Extreme Bounds of Democracy," Journal of Conflict Resolution, Peace Science Society (International), vol. 57(2), pages 171-197, April.
  6. Ataul Huq Pramanik, 2012. "Development and democratization from the perspective of Islamic world view: The role of civil society versus state in the Arab world," Humanomics: The International Journal of Systems and Ethics, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 28(1), pages 5-25, February.
  7. King, Alan & Ramlogan-Dobson, Carlyn, 2011. "Nonlinear time-series convergence: The role of structural breaks," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 110(3), pages 238-240, March.
  8. John W. Dawson & Amit Sen, 2005. "New Evidence on the Convergence of International Income from a Group of 29 Countries," Working Papers 05-22, Department of Economics, Appalachian State University.
  9. Hassan Gholipour Fereidouni & Tajul Ariffin Masron & Reza Ekhtiari Amiri, 2011. "The effects of FDI on voice and accountability in the MENA region," International Journal of Social Economics, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 38(9), pages 802-815, August.
  10. Mei-Se Chien, 2010. "Structural Breaks and the Convergence of Regional House Prices," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 40(1), pages 77-88, January.
  11. Marco R Barassi & Matthew A Cole & Robert J R Elliott, 2010. "The Stochastic Convergence of CO2 Emissions: A Long Memory Approach," Discussion Papers 10-32, Department of Economics, University of Birmingham.
  12. Marco Barassi & Matthew Cole & Robert Elliott, 2011. "The Stochastic Convergence of CO 2 Emissions: A Long Memory Approach," Environmental & Resource Economics, European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 49(3), pages 367-385, July.
  13. Juncal Cunado & Fernando Perez de Gracia, 2006. "Real convergence in some Central and Eastern European countries," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 38(20), pages 2433-2441.
  14. Cunado, J. & Perez de Gracia, F., 2006. "Real convergence in Africa in the second-half of the 20th century," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 58(2), pages 153-167.

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