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Out-of-sample Performance of Leading Indicators for the German Business Cycle: Single vs. Combined Forecasts

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  • Christian Dreger

    ()

  • Christian Schumacher

    ()

Abstract

In this paper the forecasting performance of popular leading indicators for the German business cycle is investigated. Survey based indicators (ifo business climate, ZEW index of economic sentiment) and composite leading indicators (Handelsblatt, Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, Commerzbank) are considered. The analysis points to a significant relationship of the indicators to the business cycle within the sample period, as measured by the direction of causality. But, their out-of-sample forecasts do not improve the autoregressive benchmark. This result may be caused by structural breaks in the out-of-sample period. As combinations of forecasts tend to be more robust against such shifts, pooled forecasts are constructed using different methods of aggregation, including linear combinations of forecasts and common factor models. In contrast to the single indicator approach, the combined indicator forecasts are able to beat the benchmark at each forecasting horizon. Therefore, the analysis points to the usefulness of pooling information in order to get more reliable forecasts.

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File URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/jbcma-2005-5km7v183qs0v
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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by OECD Publishing,CIRET in its journal Journal of Business Cycle Measurement and Analysis.

Volume (Year): 2005 (2005)
Issue (Month): 1 ()
Pages: 71-87

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Handle: RePEc:oec:stdkaa:5km7v183qs0v

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Keywords: Leading Indicators; Combined forecasts;

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Cited by:
  1. Konstantin A. Kholodilin & Boriss Siliverstovs, 2005. "On the Forecasting Properties of the Alternative Leading Indicators for the German GDP: Recent Evidence," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 522, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
  2. Nikolay Robinzonov & Gerhard Tutz & Torsten Hothorn, 2012. "Boosting techniques for nonlinear time series models," AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis, Springer, vol. 96(1), pages 99-122, January.
  3. Mayr, Johannes, 2010. "Forecasting Macroeconomic Aggregates," Munich Dissertations in Economics 11140, University of Munich, Department of Economics.
  4. Katarina Bacic & Maruska Vizek, 2006. "A Brand New CROLEI: Do We Need a New Forecasting Index?," Financial Theory and Practice, Institute of Public Finance, vol. 30(4), pages 311-346.
  5. Katja Drechsel & Rolf Scheufele, 2010. "Should We Trust in Leading Indicators? Evidence from the Recent Recession," IWH Discussion Papers 10, Halle Institute for Economic Research.
  6. Maria Antoinette Silgoner, 2005. "An Overview of European Economic Indicators: Great Variety of Data on the Euro Area, Need for More Extensive Coverage of the New EU Member States," Monetary Policy & the Economy, Oesterreichische Nationalbank (Austrian Central Bank), issue 3, pages 66–89.
  7. Anna Scharschmidt & Klaus Wohlrabe, 2011. "Sektorale Prognosen im Verarbeitenden Gewerbe," Ifo Schnelldienst, Ifo Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich, vol. 64(22), pages 27-35, November.
  8. Klaus Abberger & Klaus Wohlrabe, 2006. "Einige Prognoseeigenschaften des ifo Geschäftsklimas - Ein Überblick über die neuere wissenschaftliche Literatur," Ifo Schnelldienst, Ifo Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich, vol. 59(22), pages 19-26, November.
  9. Gerit Vogt, 2007. "Analyse der Prognoseeigenschaften von ifo-Konjunkturindikatoren unter Echtzeitbedingungen," Journal of Economics and Statistics (Jahrbuecher fuer Nationaloekonomie und Statistik), Justus-Liebig University Giessen, Department of Statistics and Economics, vol. 227(1), pages 87-101, February.
  10. Gerit Vogt, 2009. "Konjunkturprognose in Deutschland. Ein Beitrag zur Prognose der gesamtwirtschaftlichen Entwicklung auf Bundes- und Länderebene," ifo Beiträge zur Wirtschaftsforschung, Ifo Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich, number 36.
  11. Österholm, Pär, 2013. "Forecasting Business Investment in the Short Term Using Survey Data," Working Paper 131, National Institute of Economic Research.
  12. Klaus Abberger & Sascha O. Becker & Barbara Hofmann & Klaus Wohlrabe, 2007. "Mikrodaten im ifo Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung: Bestand, Verwendung, Zugang," Ifo Working Paper Series Ifo Working Paper No. 44, Ifo Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich.
  13. Christian Dreger & Konstantin A. Kholodilin, 2010. "Forecasting Private Consumption by Consumer Surveys," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 1066, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
  14. Klaus Abberger & Gebhard Flaig & Wolfgang Nierhaus, 2007. "ifo Konjunkturumfragen und Konjunkturanalyse : ausgewählte methodische Aufsätze aus dem ifo Schnelldienst," ifo Forschungsberichte, Ifo Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich, number 33, 8.
  15. Nikolay Robinzonov & Klaus Wohlrabe, 2008. "Freedom of Choice in Macroeconomic Forecasting: An Illustration with German Industrial Production and Linear Models," Ifo Working Paper Series Ifo Working Paper No. 57, Ifo Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich.
  16. Sascha O. Becker & Klaus Wohlrabe, 2008. "European Data Watch: Micro Data at the Ifo Institute for Economic Research – The “Ifo Business Survey”, Usage and Access," Schmollers Jahrbuch : Journal of Applied Social Science Studies / Zeitschrift für Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaften, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin, vol. 128(2), pages 307-319.
  17. Anna Stangl, 2007. "Der Index für Konjunkturerwartungen des ZEW und des ifo Instituts, WES, sind für Deutschland identisch," Ifo Schnelldienst, Ifo Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich, vol. 60(03), pages 55-56, 02.
  18. Konstantin A. Kholodilin, 2005. "Forecasting the German Cyclical Turning Points: Dynamic Bi-Factor Model with Markov Switching," Journal of Economics and Statistics (Jahrbuecher fuer Nationaloekonomie und Statistik), Justus-Liebig University Giessen, Department of Statistics and Economics, vol. 225(6), pages 653-674, November.
  19. Sascha O. Becker & Klaus Wohlrabe, 2007. "Micro Data at the Ifo Institute for Economic Research – The “Ifo Business Survey”, Usage and Access," Ifo Working Paper Series Ifo Working Paper No. 47, Ifo Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich.
  20. Drechsel, Katja & Scheufele, Rolf, 2012. "The performance of short-term forecasts of the German economy before and during the 2008/2009 recession," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 28(2), pages 428-445.

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