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Le contrôle de l’émission de monnaie en Grande-Bretagne au XIXe siècle : avancées et limites du Bank Charter Act de 1844

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  • Esposito, Marie-Claude
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    Abstract

    Dès sa création en 1696, la Banque d’Angleterre fut à la fois une banque privée et une institution au service du gouvernement, assurant la gestion de la dette publique et détenant le monopole de l’émission de billets en Angleterre. Les problèmes posés par la suspension de la convertibilité de la livre en or, en 1797, vont être à l’origine d’un long conflit portant sur les moyens nécessaires pour assurer la stabilité du système monétaire britannique. C’est ainsi que s’opposèrent pendant un demi siècle partisans de la réglementation et de la liberté totale d’action pour la Banque d’Angleterre. Il faudra attendre le vote du le Bank Charter Act , en 1844, pour que soit clarifiée la relation entre la Banque d’Angleterre et l’État. Même si cette loi ne résolut pas tous les problèmes, elle fixa les caractéristiques du système monétaire britannique qui perdurèrent jusqu’à la Première Guerre mondiale.

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    Article provided by Editions NecPlus in its journal Histoire, économie & société.

    Volume (Year): 2009 (2009)
    Issue (Month): 02 (June)
    Pages: 59-74

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    Handle: RePEc:nec:hecoso:v:2009:y:2009:i:02:p:59-74_00

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