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The Speed and Cost of Industrial Innovation in Japan and the United States: External vs. Internal Technology

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Author Info

  • Edwin Mansfield

    (Center for Economics and Technology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104-6297)

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    Abstract

    This study, based on detailed data obtained from carefully selected samples of about 200 Japanese and American firms, seems to be the first comprehensive empirical investigation of the differences between Japan and the United States in innovation cost and time. Whereas the Japanese have substantial advantages in this regard in some industries (notably machinery), they do not seem to have any substantial advantage in others (notably chemicals). Whereas they have great advantages in carrying out innovations based on external technology, they do not seem to have any in carrying out innovations based on internal technology. Japanese firms allocate their resources quite differently than do American firms, a larger percentage of total innovation cost being devoted to tooling and manufacturing equipment and facilities, a smaller percentage being devoted to marketing startup. A large part of America's problem in this regard seems to be due to its apparent inability to match Japan as a quick and effective user of external technology.

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    File URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1287/mnsc.34.10.1157
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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by INFORMS in its journal Management Science.

    Volume (Year): 34 (1988)
    Issue (Month): 10 (October)
    Pages: 1157-1168

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    Handle: RePEc:inm:ormnsc:v:34:y:1988:i:10:p:1157-1168

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    Related research

    Keywords: innovation; research and development; economics;

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    Cited by:
    1. Diamond, Arthur Jr., 2003. "Edwin Mansfield's contributions to the economics of technology," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 32(9), pages 1607-1617, October.
    2. Luisa Carvalho & Teresa Costa & Jorge Caiado, 2012. "Determinants of innovation in a small open economy: A multidimensional perspective," CEMAPRE Working Papers 1201, Centre for Applied Mathematics and Economics (CEMAPRE), School of Economics and Management (ISEG), Technical University of Lisbon.
    3. A. Heirman & B. Clarysse, 2004. "Do Intangible Assets and Pre-founding R&D Efforts Matter for Innovation Speed in Start-Ups?," Working Papers of Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Ghent University, Belgium 04/238, Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration.
    4. Bischi, G. -I. & Dawid, H. & Kopel, M., 2003. "Spillover effects and the evolution of firm clusters," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 50(1), pages 47-75, January.
    5. Rosenbusch, Nina & Brinckmann, Jan & Bausch, Andreas, 2011. "Is innovation always beneficial? A meta-analysis of the relationship between innovation and performance in SMEs," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 26(4), pages 441-457, July.
    6. Liu, John, 2000. "On the dynamics of stochastic diffusion of manufacturing technology," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 124(3), pages 601-614, August.
    7. Qiangbing Chen & Yali Liu, 2011. "The Diffusion of a Process Innovation with Gently Declining Production Cost," Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade, Springer, vol. 11(2), pages 109-129, June.
    8. Deeds, David L. & Decarolis, DONA & Coombs, Joseph, 2000. "Dynamic capabilities and new product development in high technology ventures: An empirical analysis of new biotechnology firms," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 15(3), pages 211-229, May.
    9. Kafouros, Mario I. & Forsans, Nicolas, 2012. "The role of open innovation in emerging economies: Do companies profit from the scientific knowledge of others?," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 47(3), pages 362-370.
    10. Ito, Kiyohiko & Rose, Elizabeth L., 1999. "Innovations and geographic focus: A comparison of US and Japanese firms," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 8(1), pages 55-74, January.
    11. Deeds, David L. & Decarolis, Dona & Coombs, Joseph E., 1997. "The impact of firmspecific capabilities on the amount of capital raised in an initial public offering: Evidence from the biotechnology industry," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 12(1), pages 31-46, January.
    12. Baldwin, John R. Beckstead, Desmond Gellatly, Guy, 2005. "Canada's Investments in Science and Innovation: Is the Existing Concept of Research and Development Sufficient?," Economic Analysis (EA) Research Paper Series 2005032e, Statistics Canada, Analytical Studies Branch.

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