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Concepts and Applications of Backup Coverage


Author Info

  • Kathleen Hogan

    (Department of Geography and Environmental Engineering, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218)

  • Charles ReVelle

    (Department of Geography and Environmental Engineering, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218)

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    Backup coverage, the second coverage of a demand node, is suggested as a decision criterion in modelling the location of emergency services on a network. The efficient handling of stochastic demand by vehicles which can respond to only one call at a time may require backup coverage in areas of high demand as a means to maintain a more uniform level of service. This new criterion is applied in the context of the classic covering models, the Location Set Covering Problem and the Maximal Covering Location Problem. First coverage as defined in these models is traded off against backup coverage in the present work. Other efforts which incorporate additional levels of coverage are reviewed. We also show how to extend these models to third as well as subsequent coverage. Based on an example problem we show that significant levels of backup coverage may possibly be provided within a system without substantial loss of first coverage.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by INFORMS in its journal Management Science.

    Volume (Year): 32 (1986)
    Issue (Month): 11 (November)
    Pages: 1434-1444

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    Handle: RePEc:inm:ormnsc:v:32:y:1986:i:11:p:1434-1444

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    Keywords: government: emergency services; programming: integer; applications; set covering problems;


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    Cited by:
    1. Hamaide, Bertrand & ReVelle, Charles S. & Malcolm, Scott A., 2006. "Biological reserves, rare species and the trade-off between species abundance and species diversity," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 56(4), pages 570-583, April.
    2. Juutinen, Artti & Mönkkönen, Mikko & Ylisirniö, Anna-Liisa, 2009. "Does a voluntary conservation program result in a representative protected area network?: The case of Finnish privately owned forests," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 68(12), pages 2974-2984, October.
    3. Geroliminis, Nikolas & Kepaptsoglou, Konstantinos & Karlaftis, Matthew G., 2011. "A hybrid hypercube - Genetic algorithm approach for deploying many emergency response mobile units in an urban network," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 210(2), pages 287-300, April.
    4. Ran Wei & Alan Murray & Rajan Batta, 2014. "A bounding-based solution approach for the continuous arc covering problem," Journal of Geographical Systems, Springer, vol. 16(2), pages 161-182, April.
    5. Aytug, Haldun & Saydam, Cem, 2002. "Solving large-scale maximum expected covering location problems by genetic algorithms: A comparative study," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 141(3), pages 480-494, September.
    6. Beraldi, P. & Bruni, M.E., 2009. "A probabilistic model applied to emergency service vehicle location," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 196(1), pages 323-331, July.
    7. Marianov, Vladimir & ReVelle, Charles, 1996. "The Queueing Maximal availability location problem: A model for the siting of emergency vehicles," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 93(1), pages 110-120, August.
    8. Capar, Ismail & Kuby, Michael & Leon, V. Jorge & Tsai, Yu-Jiun, 2013. "An arc cover–path-cover formulation and strategic analysis of alternative-fuel station locations," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 227(1), pages 142-151.
    9. Adenso-Díaz, B. & Rodríguez, F., 1997. "A simple search heuristic for the MCLP: Application to the location of ambulance bases in a rural region," Omega, Elsevier, vol. 25(2), pages 181-187, April.
    10. O’Hanley, Jesse R. & Scaparra, M. Paola & García, Sergio, 2013. "Probability chains: A general linearization technique for modeling reliability in facility location and related problems," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 230(1), pages 63-75.
    11. Boffey, Brian & Galvao, Roberto & Espejo, Luis, 2007. "A review of congestion models in the location of facilities with immobile servers," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 178(3), pages 643-662, May.
    12. Hamaide, Bertrand & Albers, Heidi J. & Busby, Gwenlyn, 2014. "Backup coverage models in nature reserve site selection with spatial spread risk heterogeneity," Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, Elsevier, vol. 48(2), pages 158-167.
    13. Ting Lei & Daoqin Tong, 2013. "Hedging against service disruptions: an expected median location problem with site-dependent failure probabilities," Journal of Geographical Systems, Springer, vol. 15(4), pages 491-512, October.
    14. Kuby, Michael & Lim, Seow, 2005. "The flow-refueling location problem for alternative-fuel vehicles," Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, Elsevier, vol. 39(2), pages 125-145, June.
    15. Brotcorne, Luce & Laporte, Gilbert & Semet, Frederic, 2003. "Ambulance location and relocation models," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 147(3), pages 451-463, June.
    16. O'Hanley, Jesse R. & Church, Richard L., 2011. "Designing robust coverage networks to hedge against worst-case facility losses," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 209(1), pages 23-36, February.
    17. Shariat-Mohaymany, Afshin & Babaei, Mohsen & Moadi, Saeed & Amiripour, Sayyed Mahdi, 2012. "Linear upper-bound unavailability set covering models for locating ambulances: Application to Tehran rural roads," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 221(1), pages 263-272.
    18. Revelle, Charles & Snyder, Stephanie, 1995. "Integrated fire and ambulance siting: A deterministic model," Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, Elsevier, vol. 29(4), pages 261-271, December.
    19. Xueping Li & Zhaoxia Zhao & Xiaoyan Zhu & Tami Wyatt, 2011. "Covering models and optimization techniques for emergency response facility location and planning: a review," Computational Statistics, Springer, vol. 74(3), pages 281-310, December.
    20. Saydam, Cem & Aytug, Haldun, 2003. "Accurate estimation of expected coverage: revisited," Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, Elsevier, vol. 37(1), pages 69-80, March.
    21. Chen, Doron & Chen, Reuven, 2013. "Optimal algorithms for the α-neighbor p-center problem," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 225(1), pages 36-43.


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