Implicit Understandings in Channels of Distribution
AbstractFormal agreements can be used to achieve coordination among channel members. These agreements work by exerting explicit control over the members who make the agreements. However, implicit understandings can be used as a partial substitute for more formal agreements. In this paper, we show that implicit understandings can develop as channel members learn about each other's behavior. We show that ... --This learning leads to the use of the implicit influence each channel member has over the other's behavior. -- The learning leading to an implicit understanding requires some form of experimentation or historical observation. -- This learning results in an oscillating retail price. -- When only one channel member learns the other's behavior, both channel members obtain greater profits than when neither member learns, and both channel members obtain less profits than when both members learn. However, the member who does not learn obtains more profits than the member who learns. We also show that ... -- Implicit understandings result in greater channel profits than in their absence. -- Implicit understandings cannot fully substitute for an explicit contract. -- Implicit understandings result in a retail price which is higher than the price resulting from an explicit contract but lower than the price resulting in the absence of an implicit understanding. -- Implicit understandings develop as channel members learn each other's behavior. We demonstrate that the form of learning discussed in this paper is consistent with a somewhat general demand function. Finally, the paper provides some examples of both symmetrical learning, where both channel members learn at the same speed and asymmetrical learning where channel members learn at different speeds.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoArticle provided by INFORMS in its journal Management Science.
Volume (Year): 31 (1985)
Issue (Month): 4 (April)
marketing channels; bilateral monopoly; noncooperative games; rational expectations;
You can help add them by filling out this form.
CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
- Andersen, Otto & Buvik, Arnt, 2001. "Inter-firm co-ordination: international versus domestic buyer-seller relationships," Omega, Elsevier, vol. 29(2), pages 207-219, April.
- Michaela Draganska & Daniel Klapper & Sofia B. Villas-Boas, 2010.
"A Larger Slice or a Larger Pie? An Empirical Investigation of Bargaining Power in the Distribution Channel,"
INFORMS, vol. 29(1), pages 57-74, 01-02.
- Draganska, Michaela & Klapper, Daniel & Villas-Boas, Sofia B., 2008. "A larger slice or a larger pie? : an empirical investigation of bargaining power in the distribution channel," CUDARE Working Paper Series 1046, University of California at Berkeley, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics and Policy.
- Draganska, Michaela & Klapper, Daniel & Villas-Boas, Sofia B, 2008. "A Larger Slice or a Larger Pie? An Empirical Investigation of Bargaining Power in the Distribution Channel," Department of Agricultural & Resource Economics, UC Berkeley, Working Paper Series qt7v13q46w, Department of Agricultural & Resource Economics, UC Berkeley.
- Draganska, Michaela & Klapper, Daniel & Villas-Boas, Sofia B., 2008. "A Larger Slice or a Larger Pie? An Empirical Investigation of Bargaining Power in the Distribution Channel," Research Papers 2001, Stanford University, Graduate School of Business.
- Zhang, Rong & Liu, Bin & Wang, Wenliang, 2012. "Pricing decisions in a dual channels system with different power structures," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 29(2), pages 523-533.
- Wang, Charles X. & Webster, Scott & Zhang, Sidong, 2011. "A comparison of two sourcing tactics for a new component," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 211(2), pages 310-317, June.
- Huang, Zhimin & Li, Susan X., 2001. "Co-op advertising models in manufacturer-retailer supply chains: A game theory approach," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 135(3), pages 527-544, December.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Mirko Janc).
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.