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Estrategia Robin Hood en Chile. Distribución e incidencia

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  • Mardones Poblete, Cristian

    (Universidad de Concepción, Chile)

Abstract

Chile has an unsatisfactory distribution of household income and although its public expenditure (in health, education and housing) and its redistributive policy using direct transfers, have helped reduce poverty; they have not however reduced inequality strongly. The data shows that autonomous household income distribution has improved only marginally after taking into account incomes net of taxes and cash subsidies. With this initial position, the paper determines the impact of the income distribution and the incidence on the economy, which would occur if there was a potential tax increase for households in the richest quintile and a simultaneous transfer of this amount to households in the poorest quintile. This is explored with a computable general equilibrium model using Chilean data, which estimates the direct and indirect effects of this redistribution. It shows that 3.85 points increase in the effective tax rate to the richest quintile raises the income in the poorest quintile at 61.6% and reduces the Gini coefficient from 0.49 to 0.47. However, this kind of strategy to improve equity has important general equilibrium effects, notably a fall in investment and wages according to distinct skill levels.// Chile tiene una mala distribución del ingreso de los hogares y aunque las políticas de gasto público (en salud, educación y vivienda) como redistributivas vía transferencias directas han ayudado a la reducción de la pobreza, no han logrado reducir mucho la inequidad. Específicamente, respecto a los resultados de la política redistributiva, los datos revelan que la distribución del ingreso autónomo de los hogares es mejorada sólo marginalmente luego de considerar los ingresos netos de impuestos a la renta y subsidios monetarios. Considerando esta situación inicial, el artículo determina los efectos en la distribución del ingreso y la incidencia en la economía, provocados por potenciales incrementos en el impuesto a la renta de los hogares del quintil más rico y una transferencia simultánea de esa recaudación a los hogares del quintil más pobre, utilizando un modelo de equilibrio general computable calibrado con datos de la economía chilena, lo que permite calcular efectos directos e indirectos de la política redistributiva. Se concluye que 3.85 puntos de aumento en la tasa efectiva del quintil más rico aumenta el ingreso del quintil más pobre en 61.6% y reduce el coeficiente de Gini de 0.49 a 0.47. Sin embargo, este tipo de estrategia para mejorar la equidad tiene efectos económicos de equilibrio general importantes, ya que existe una caída relevante en la inversión y en los salarios de la mano de obra en sus distintas calificaciones.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Fondo de Cultura Económica in its journal El Trimestre Económico.

Volume (Year): LXXVIII (4) (2011)
Issue (Month): 312 (octubre-diciembre)
Pages: 781-812

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Handle: RePEc:elt:journl:v:78:y:2011:i:312:p:781-812

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Related research

Keywords: impuestos; tranferencias; equilibrio general computable; distribución del ingreso; incidencia;

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