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Reforma presupuestaria para un Estado redistributivo

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  • Chávez Presa, Jorge A.

    (Finanzas Públicas, Instituciones y Tecnología Gubernamentales, S.C.)

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    Abstract

    This note argues that in Mexico and Latin America some sectors of civil society still consider that the higher the public expenditure, the higher the economic rate of growth. It is argued that this action has only short term effects. Instead, it proposes to target the public expenditure to increase its effectiveness. Policy lessons then include, among others, that fiscal discipline is a necessary condition for growth. Second, that public expenditure should be target where social return is higher, and that should be financed by permanent public revenue, that is based on tax revenues instead of non-recurrent revenues such as oil.// En esta nota se argumenta que en México y más generalmente en la América Latina, algunos sectores de la sociedad todavía consideran, sin una evaluación previa y sin cuidar la efectividad de los recursos, que a mayor gasto público corresponde un mayor bienestar y un crecimiento más alto. En realidad, la experiencia muestra que el gasto público sólo puede promover y detonar temporalmente el crecimiento de algunas actividades productivas, pero no ser su motor permanente. Esta misma experiencia demuestra que sólo encauzando el gasto público a regiones y grupos sociales adecuadamente seleccionados se obtienen mayores frutos en crecimiento y bienestar social. Varias lecciones pueden aprenderse en materia de gasto público con base en lo ocurrido en el pasado reciente. La primera de ellas, y quizá la más importante, es el valor de la disciplina fiscal. Una disciplina fiscal de primera generación significa que el gasto público debe de corresponder a los ingresos esperados, mientras que una disciplina fiscal de segunda y tercera generación implica, además de lo alcanzado en la primera, respetar la asignación funcional y programática del gasto derivada de una planeación cuidadosa que redunde en altas tasas de rentabilidad social. En consecuencia, para corregir el déficit es imperativo emprender una reforma presupuestaria integral. Dicha reforma debe estar orientada, entre otros aspectos, a revertir el uso de los ingresos petroleros, que no son recurrentes, a la financiación de la operación de los servicios públicos básicos y a reorientar la asignación de los recursos a la acumulación de capital público de alta productividad y rentabilidad social.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Fondo de Cultura Económica in its journal El Trimestre Económico.

    Volume (Year): LXXIV (1) (2007)
    Issue (Month): 293 (enero-marzo)
    Pages: 247-270

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    Handle: RePEc:elt:journl:v:74:y:2007:i:293:p:247-270

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    Related research

    Keywords: gasto público; ingresos tributarios; ingresos petroleros; gasto social; déficit fiscal;

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