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Hedge Fund Performance 1990–2000: Do the “Money Machines” Really Add Value?

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  • Amin, Gaurav S.
  • Kat, Harry M.

Abstract

In this paper we investigate the claim that hedge funds offer investors a superior risk-return trade-off. We do so using a continuous time version of Dybvig’s (1988a, 1988b) payoff distribution pricing model. The evaluation model, which does not require any assumptions with regard to the return distribution of the funds in question, is applied to the monthly returns of 77 hedge funds and 13 hedge fund indices over the period May 1990 – April 2000. The results show that as a stand-alone investment hedge funds do not offer a superior risk-return profile. We find 12 indices and 72 individual funds to be inefficient, with the average efficiency loss amounting to 2.76% per annum for indices and 6.42% for individual funds. Part of the inefficiency cost of individual funds can be diversified away. Funds of funds, however, are not the preferred vehicle for this as their performance appears to suffer badly from their double fee structure. Looking at hedge funds in a portfolio context results in a marked improvement in the evaluation outcomes. Seven of the 12 hedge fund indices and 58 of the 72 individual funds classified as inefficient on a stand-alone basis are capable of producing an efficient payoff profile when mixed with the S&P 500. The best results are obtained when 10-20% of the portfolio value is invested in hedge funds.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Cambridge University Press in its journal Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis.

Volume (Year): 38 (2003)
Issue (Month): 02 (June)
Pages: 251-274

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Handle: RePEc:cup:jfinqa:v:38:y:2003:i:02:p:251-274_00

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References

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  1. Lawrence R. Glosten & Ravi Jagannathan, 1993. "A contingent claim approach to performance evaluation," Staff Report 159, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.
  2. Brown, Stephen J & Goetzmann, William N & Ibbotson, Roger G, 1999. "Offshore Hedge Funds: Survival and Performance, 1989-95," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 72(1), pages 91-117, January.
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  13. Philip H. Dybvig, 1987. "Inefficient Dynamic Portfolio Strategies or How to Throw Away a Million Dollars in the Stock Market," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 826R, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University, revised Jan 1988.
  14. Fung, William & Hsieh, David A, 1997. "Empirical Characteristics of Dynamic Trading Strategies: The Case of Hedge Funds," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 10(2), pages 275-302.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Marshall, Andrew & Tang, Leilei, 2011. "Assessing the impact of heteroskedasticity for evaluating hedge fund performance," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 20(1), pages 12-19, January.
  2. Sheng Li & Oliver Linton, 2007. "Evaluating hedge fund performance: a stochastic dominance approach," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 24486, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
  3. Wilkens, Marco & Yao, Juan & Jeyasreedharan, Nagaratnam & Oehler, Patrick, 2013. "Measuring the performance of hedge funds using two-stage peer group benchmarks," Working Papers 2013-18, University of Tasmania, School of Economics and Finance, revised 01 Jun 2013.
  4. Eling, Martin & Schuhmacher, Frank, 2007. "Does the choice of performance measure influence the evaluation of hedge funds?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(9), pages 2632-2647, September.
  5. Jakub W. Jurek & Erik Stafford, 2011. "The Cost of Capital for Alternative Investments," Harvard Business School Working Papers 12-013, Harvard Business School.
  6. Akihiko Takahashi & Kyo Yamamoto, 2009. "Generating a Target Payoff Distribution with the Cheapest Dynamic Portfolio: An Application to Hedge Fund Replication," CARF F-Series CARF-F-308, Center for Advanced Research in Finance, Faculty of Economics, The University of Tokyo, revised Feb 2013.
  7. Meligkotsidou, Loukia & Vrontos, Ioannis D., 2008. "Detecting structural breaks and identifying risk factors in hedge fund returns: A Bayesian approach," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(11), pages 2471-2481, November.
  8. Harry. M Kat & Joelle Miffre, 2002. "Performance Evaluation and Conditioning Information: The case of Hedge Funds," ICMA Centre Discussion Papers in Finance icma-dp2002-10, Henley Business School, Reading University.
  9. Roncalli, Thierry & Weisang, Guillaume, 2008. "Tracking problems, hedge fund replication and alternative beta," MPRA Paper 37358, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  10. Abugri, Benjamin A. & Dutta, Sandip, 2009. "Emerging market hedge funds: Do they perform like regular hedge funds?," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 19(5), pages 834-849, December.
  11. Auer, Benjamin R., 2014. "Should hedge funds be cautious reporting high returns?," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 30(C), pages 195-201.
  12. Akihiko Takahashi & Kyo Yamamoto, 2009. "Generating a Target Payoff Distribution with the Cheapest Dynamic Portfolio: An Application to Hedge Fund Replication," CIRJE F-Series CIRJE-F-624, CIRJE, Faculty of Economics, University of Tokyo.
  13. Clemens Sialm & Zheng Sun & Lu Zheng, 2013. "Home Bias and Local Contagion: Evidence from Funds of Hedge Funds," NBER Working Papers 19570, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  14. Rodolfo Apreda, 2014. "Another viewpoint on investment funds. And their opaque governance," CEMA Working Papers: Serie Documentos de Trabajo. 535, Universidad del CEMA.
  15. Alfred Mbairadjim Moussa & Jules Sadefo Kamdem & Michel Terraza, 2012. "Fuzzy risk adjusted performance measures: application to Hedge funds," Working Papers 12-24, LAMETA, Universtiy of Montpellier, revised Sep 2012.
  16. Jordão, Gustavo A. & de Moura, Marcelo L., 2011. "Performance analysis of Brazilian hedge funds," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 21(3), pages 165-176, July.
  17. Antonio Di Cesare & Philip A. Stork & Casper G. de Vries, 2011. "Risk Measures for Autocorrelated Hedge Fund Returns," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 11-084/2/DSF 23, Tinbergen Institute.
  18. Agarwal, Vikas & Fos, Vyacheslav & Jiang, Wei, 2010. "Inferring reporting biases in hedge fund databases from hedge fund equity holdings," CFR Working Papers 10-08, University of Cologne, Centre for Financial Research (CFR).
  19. Meligkotsidou, Loukia & Vrontos, Ioannis D. & Vrontos, Spyridon D., 2009. "Quantile regression analysis of hedge fund strategies," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 16(2), pages 264-279, March.
  20. Benjamin Auer, 2013. "The low return distortion of the Sharpe ratio," Financial Markets and Portfolio Management, Springer, vol. 27(3), pages 299-306, September.
  21. Dichev, Ilia D. & Yu, Gwen, 2011. "Higher risk, lower returns: What hedge fund investors really earn," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 100(2), pages 248-263, May.

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