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The Unequal Burden of War: The Effect of Armed Conflict on the Gender Gap in Life Expectancy

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  • Pl mper, Thomas
  • Neumayer, Eric

Abstract

Most combatants in armed conflict are men, so naturally men are the major direct victims of military operations. Yet armed conflicts have important indirect negative consequences on agriculture, infrastructure, public health provision, and social order. These indirect consequences are often overlooked and underappreciated. They also affect women arguably more so than men. This article provides the first rigorous analysis of the impact of armed conflict on female life expectancy relative to male. We find that over the entire conflict period, interstate and civil wars on average affect women more adversely than men. In peacetime, women typically live longer than men. Hence, armed conflict tends to decrease the gap between female and male life expectancy. For civil wars, we also find that ethnic wars and wars in failed states are much more damaging to women than other civil wars. Our findings challenge policymakers as well as international and humanitarian organizations to develop policies that tackle the large indirect and long-term negative health impacts of armed conflicts.Equal authorship. We are grateful for helpful suggestions by Andrew Mack, H vard Hegre, David Hugh-Jones, Lisa Martin, and the anonymous referees. Eric Neumayer acknowledges financial assistance from the Leverhulme Trust and Thomas Pl mper financial assistance by the European Commission-DG Research Sixth Framework Program (CIT-2-CT-2004-506084). Data and do-files to generate the results are available on request.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Cambridge University Press in its journal International Organization.

Volume (Year): 60 (2006)
Issue (Month): 03 (July)
Pages: 723-754

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Handle: RePEc:cup:intorg:v:60:y:2006:i:03:p:723-754_06

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Cited by:
  1. Jose Galdo, 2013. "The Long-Run Labor-Market Consequences of Civil War: Evidence from the Shining Path in Peru," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 61(4), pages 789 - 823.
  2. Mirey Ovadiya & Giuseppe Zampaglione, 2009. "Escaping Stigma and Neglect : People with Disabilities in Sierra Leone," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 5950, October.
  3. Bodea, Cristina & Elbadawi, Ibrahim A., 2008. "Political violence and economic growth," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4692, The World Bank.
  4. Reade, Carol & Lee, Hyun-Jung, 2012. "Organizational Commitment in Time of War: Assessing the Impact and Attenuation of Employee Sensitivity to Ethnopolitical Conflict," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 85-101.
  5. Tausch, Arno, 2012. "‚Getting Asylum Seekers into Employment‘? – Ein Allheilmittel für die Europäische Einwanderungspolitik?
    [‚Getting Asylum Seekers into Employment‘? – A panacea for European immigration
    ," MPRA Paper 40759, University Library of Munich, Germany.

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