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Funding Self-Sustaining Development: The Role of Aid, FDI and Government in Economic Success

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  • Kosack, Stephen
  • Tobin, Jennifer

Abstract

This article challenges a long-held development-policy assumption that aid and foreign-direct investment (FDI) serve as substitutes or complements in accelerating the development of the world s poorer countries. We show both theoretically and empirically that aid and FDI affect development differently. Aid contributes powerfully to both economic growth and human development, and the higher the level of human capital in a country, the more aid contributes. By contrast, FDI, at best, has no effect on economic growth and actually slows the rate of human development in less-developed countries. We find no evidence that the degree of democratic responsiveness in government conditions the effectiveness of either aid or FDI, although we do find that democracy independently increases human development in all but the most developed countries. Our results demonstrate that FDI and aid are not, and cannot be, substitutes in the development of the world s poorer countries. Nor even can they be thought of as complements certainly not at mid to low levels of development. In the end, poor countries need democracy and aid, not FDI.We are extremely grateful to Susan Rose-Ackerman, Gustav Ranis, Frances Rosenbluth, Kenneth Scheve, and participants at the Leitner Political Economy Seminar at Yale University in December 2003 for very helpful comments. We also received valuable suggestions from two anonymous reviewers. Stephen Kosack would like to thank the National Science Foundation for the support of a Graduate Research Fellowship.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Cambridge University Press in its journal International Organization.

Volume (Year): 60 (2006)
Issue (Month): 01 (January)
Pages: 205-243

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Handle: RePEc:cup:intorg:v:60:y:2006:i:01:p:205-243_06

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Cited by:
  1. Selaya, Pablo & Sunesen, Eva Rytter, 2012. "Does Foreign Aid Increase Foreign Direct Investment?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 40(11), pages 2155-2176.
  2. Jennifer Tobin & Susan Rose-Ackerman, 2011. "When BITs have some bite: The political-economic environment for bilateral investment treaties," The Review of International Organizations, Springer, vol. 6(1), pages 1-32, March.
  3. Yamin, Mo & Sinkovics, Rudolf R., 2009. "Infrastructure or foreign direct investment?: An examination of the implications of MNE strategy for economic development," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 44(2), pages 144-157, April.
  4. Yousuf, Ahmed Sadek, 2012. "Impact of Health Aid on Infant Mortality Rate," MPRA Paper 42945, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 12 Oct 2012.
  5. Azam, Jean-Paul & Berlinschi, Ruxanda, 2008. "The Aid-Migration of Trade-Off," IDEI Working Papers 538, Institut d'Économie Industrielle (IDEI), Toulouse.
  6. Yousuf, Ahmed Sadek, 2012. "Assessing Impact of Health Oriented Aid on Infant Mortality Rates," MPRA Paper 43212, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 10 Dec 2012.
  7. Malik, Girijasankar, 2008. "Foreign Aid and Economic Growth: A Cointegration Analysis of the Six Poorest African Countries," Economic Analysis and Policy (EAP), Queensland University of Technology (QUT), School of Economics and Finance, vol. 38(2), pages 251-260, September.
  8. Henri Bezuidenhout, 2009. "A regional perspective on Aid and FDI in Southern Africa," Working Papers 147, Economic Research Southern Africa.
  9. Annageldy Arazmuradov, 2012. "Foreign Aid, Foreign Direct Investment, and Domestic Investment Nexus in Landlocked Economies of Central Asia," Economic Research Guardian, Weissberg Publishing, vol. 2(1), pages 129-151, May.
  10. Rajarshi Mitra & Md. Sharif Hossain, 2013. "Foreign Aid and Economic Growth in the Philippines," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 33(3), pages 1706-1714.
  11. Wilson, Sven E., 2011. "Chasing Success: Health Sector Aid and Mortality," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 39(11), pages 2032-2043.
  12. Xu, WeiGuo & Hu, DaiPing & Lei, AiZhong & Shen, HuiZhang, 2008. "FDI chaos and control in China," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 22(1), pages 17-28, January.
  13. Mamoun Benmamoun & Kevin Lehnert, 2013. "Financing Growth: Comparing The Effects Of Fdi, Oda, And International Remittances," Journal of Economic Development, Chung-Ang Unviersity, Department of Economics, vol. 38(2), pages 43-65, June.
  14. Chee-Keong Choong, 2012. "Does domestic financial development enhance the linkages between foreign direct investment and economic growth?," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 42(3), pages 819-834, June.
  15. Carro, Martha & Larrú, José María, 2010. "Flowing Together or Flowing Apart: An Analysis of the Relation between FDI and ODA Flows to Argentina and Brazil," MPRA Paper 25064, University Library of Munich, Germany.

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