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Opportunism in Inter-firm Exchanges in Emerging Markets

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  • Yadong Luo

    (University of Miami)

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    Abstract

    This article develops a theoretical model of opportunism in inter-organizational exchanges in emerging markets. I decompose opportunism into 'strong form' (contractual norm violation) and 'weak form' (relational norm violation), and suggest that strong form tends to be more observable, measurable and remediable than weak form and its adverse effect on cooperation tends to be stronger but less enduring than weak form. I address how external uncertainty, a multidimensional concept that includes market volatility, legal unprotectability, information unverifiability and regulatory variability, along with internal uncertainty that reflects dyadic tensions such as goal disparity, resource misfit, cultural dissimilarity and bargaining asymmetry, together affect exchange members' opportunism. This is followed by further discussions on conditions under which firms will opt for strong form or weak form opportunism in the face of such external and internal uncertainties. I suggest that suppressing forces against opportunism necessitates not only economic ordering, such as contractual mechanisms and structural mechanisms, but also social ordering, such as relational mechanisms and justice mechanisms. I expect that economic ordering is more effective in resisting strong form opportunism while social ordering is more forceful in curtailing weak form opportunism.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by International Association of Chinese Management Research in its journal Management and Organization Review.

    Volume (Year): 2 (2006)
    Issue (Month): 1 (March)
    Pages: 121-147

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    Handle: RePEc:cmr:mor101:v:1:y:2006:i:1:p:121-147

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    Cited by:
    1. Jae-Seung Han & Sang-Yong Lee, 2013. "The impact of technology transfer contract on a firm’s market value in Korea," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 38(5), pages 651-674, October.
    2. Lumineau, Fabrice & Henderson, James, 2012. "The influence of relational experience and contractual governance on the negotiation strategy in buyer-supplier disputes," MPRA Paper 38510, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    3. Ayşe Elif Şengün & �etin �nder, 2011. "The Conditional Impact of Competence Trust on Inter-Firm Learning in a Collectivist SME Context," Industry and Innovation, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 18(8), pages 791-812, November.
    4. Domènec Melé, 2009. "The Practice of Networking: An Ethical Approach," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 90(4), pages 487-503, December.
    5. Ju, Min & Murray, Janet Y. & Kotabe, Masaaki & Gao, Gerald Yong, 2011. "Reducing distributor opportunism in the export market: Effects of monitoring mechanisms, norm-based information exchange, and market orientation," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 46(4), pages 487-496, October.
    6. Zhe Zhang & Ming Jia & Difang Wan, 2012. "When does a partner’s reputation impact cooperation effects in partnerships?," Asia Pacific Journal of Management, Springer, vol. 29(3), pages 547-571, September.
    7. Jianjun Zhang & Hao Ma, 2009. "Adoption of professional management in Chinese family business: A multilevel analysis of impetuses and impediments," Asia Pacific Journal of Management, Springer, vol. 26(1), pages 119-139, March.

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