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A Reexamination of the Conglomerate Merger Wave in the 1960s: An Internal Capital Markets View

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  • R. Glenn Hubbard

    (Graduate School of Business, Columbia University, and NBER,)

  • Darius Palia

    (NBER)

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    Abstract

    One possible explanation for bidding firms earning positive abnormal returns in diversifying acquisitions in the 1960s is that internal capital markets were expected to overcome the information deficiencies of the less-developed capital markets. Examining 392 bidder firms during the 1960s, we find the highest bidder returns when financially "unconstrained" buyers acquire "constrained" targets. This result holds while controlling for merger terms and for different proxies used to classify firms facing costly external financing. We also find that bidders generally retain target management, suggesting that management may have provided company-specific operational information, while the bidder provided capital-budgeting expertise. Copyright The American Finance Association 1999.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by American Finance Association in its journal The Journal of Finance.

    Volume (Year): 54 (1999)
    Issue (Month): 3 (06)
    Pages: 1131-1152

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    Handle: RePEc:bla:jfinan:v:54:y:1999:i:3:p:1131-1152

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    Cited by:
    1. McNeil, Chris R. & Moore, William T., 2005. "Dismantling internal capital markets via spinoff: effects on capital allocation efficiency and firm valuation," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 11(1-2), pages 253-275, March.
    2. Shams, Syed M.M. & Gunasekarage, Abeyratna & Colombage, Sisira R.N., 2013. "Does the organisational form of the target influence market reaction to acquisition announcements? Australian evidence," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 24(C), pages 89-108.
    3. Martynova, M. & Renneboog, L.D.R., 2006. "Mergers and Acquisitions in Europe," Discussion Paper 2006-003, Tilburg University, Tilburg Law and Economic Center.
    4. Steffen Huck & Kai A. Konrad & Wieland Müller, 2001. "Profitable Horizontal Mergers without Cost Advantages: The Role of Internal Organization, Information, and Market Structure," CESifo Working Paper Series 435, CESifo Group Munich.
    5. Lin, Chen & Su, Dongwei, 2008. "Industrial diversification, partial privatization and firm valuation: Evidence from publicly listed firms in China," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 14(4), pages 405-417, September.
    6. Martynova, Marina & Renneboog, Luc, 2008. "A century of corporate takeovers: What have we learned and where do we stand?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(10), pages 2148-2177, October.
    7. Fang (Helga) He & Feng-Shun (Leo) Bin & Dar-Hsin Chen, 2008. "Cross-Border M&A: Cultural Disparities and the Associated Wealth Effects," International Journal of Business and Economics, College of Business, and College of Finance, Feng Chia University, Taichung, Taiwan, vol. 7(2), pages 89-100, August.
    8. Al-Khasawneh, Jamal Ali & Essaddam, Naceur, 2012. "Market reaction to the merger announcements of US banks: A non-parametric X-efficiency framework," Global Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 23(3), pages 167-183.
    9. Pavel Sevcik, 2009. "Financial Frictions, Internal Capital Markets, and the Organization of Production," 2009 Meeting Papers 530, Society for Economic Dynamics.
    10. Martin, John D. & Sayrak, Akin, 2003. "Corporate diversification and shareholder value: a survey of recent literature," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 9(1), pages 37-57, January.
    11. Marko Köthenbürger & Michael Stimmelmayr, 2013. "Taxing Multinationals in the Presence of Internal Capital Markets," CESifo Working Paper Series 4353, CESifo Group Munich.
    12. Stefan Erdorf & Thomas Hartmann-Wendels & Nicolas Heinrichs & Michael Matz, 2012. "Corporate Diversification and Firm Value: A Survey of Recent Literature," Cologne Graduate School Working Paper Series 03-01, Cologne Graduate School in Management, Economics and Social Sciences.
    13. Tarun Khanna & Yishay Yafeh, 2007. "Business Groups in Emerging Markets: Paragons or Parasites?," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 45(2), pages 331-372, June.
    14. Joshua Porter & Harminder Singh, 2010. "What Factors Drive Takeovers in Australia?," International Journal of Business and Economics, College of Business, and College of Finance, Feng Chia University, Taichung, Taiwan, vol. 9(2), pages 87-103, August.
    15. Billett, Matthew T. & Mauer, David C., 2000. "Diversification and the value of internal capital markets: The case of tracking stock," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 24(9), pages 1457-1490, September.
    16. Kruse, Timothy A. & Park, Hun Y. & Park, Kwangwoo & Suzuki, Kazunori, 2007. "Long-term performance following mergers of Japanese companies: The effect of diversification and affiliation," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 15(2), pages 154-172, April.
    17. Stefan Erdorf & Thomas Hartmann-Wendels & Nicolas Heinrichs & Michael Matz, 2013. "Corporate diversification and firm value: a survey of recent literature," Financial Markets and Portfolio Management, Springer, vol. 27(2), pages 187-215, June.
    18. Hovakimian, Gayané, 2011. "Financial constraints and investment efficiency: Internal capital allocation across the business cycle," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 20(2), pages 264-283, April.
    19. Huck, Steffen & Konrad, Kai A. & Müller, Wieland, 2000. "Profitable horizontal mergers: A market structure-oriented view," SFB 373 Discussion Papers 2000,27, Humboldt University of Berlin, Interdisciplinary Research Project 373: Quantification and Simulation of Economic Processes.

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