Tiebreaker: Certification and Multiple Credit Ratings
This paper explores the role played by multiple credit rating agencies (CRAs) in the market for corporate bonds. Moodyâ€™s, S&P and Fitch operate in a competitive setting with market demand for both credit information and the certification value of a high rating. We empirically document the outcome of this competitive interaction over the period 2002 to 2007. Virtually all bonds in our sample are rated by both Moodyâ€™s and Standard and Poors (S&P), and between 40% and 60% of the bonds are also rated by Fitch. This apparent redundancy in information production has long been a puzzle. We consider three explanations for why issuers apply for a third rating: â€˜information production,â€™ â€˜adverse selectionâ€™ and â€˜certificationâ€™ with respect to regulatory and rules-based constraints. Using ratings and credit spread regressions, we find evidence in favor of Certification only. Additional evidence shows that the reported certification effects are consistent with an equilibrium outcome in a market with information-sensitive and insensitive bonds. In such a setting, ratings help to prevent market breakdowns.
|Date of creation:||01 Nov 2008|
|Date of revision:||01 Sep 2009|
|Contact details of provider:|| Web page: http://icf.som.yale.edu/|
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Long Chen & David A. Lesmond & Jason Wei, 2007. "Corporate Yield Spreads and Bond Liquidity," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 62(1), pages 119-149, 02.
- Boot, Arnoud W A & Milbourn, Todd, 2002.
"Credit Ratings as Coordination Mechanism,"
CEPR Discussion Papers
3331, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Arnoud W.A. Boot & Todd T. Milbourn, 2002. "Credit Ratings as Coordination Mechanisms," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 02-058/2, Tinbergen Institute.
- Arnoud W. A. Boot & Todd T. Milbourn, 2002. "Credit Ratings as Coordination Mechanisms," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series 457, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
- Altman, Edward I. & Rijken, Herbert A., 2004. "How rating agencies achieve rating stability," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 28(11), pages 2679-2714, November.
- Christina E. Bannier & Patrick Behr & Andre Güttler, 2010.
"Rating opaque borrowers: why are unsolicited ratings lower?,"
Review of Finance,
European Finance Association, vol. 14(2), pages 263-294.
- Bannier, Christina E. & Behr, Patrick & Güttler, André, 2009. "Rating opaque borrowers: why are unsolicited ratings lower?," Frankfurt School - Working Paper Series 133, Frankfurt School of Finance and Management.
- Darren J. Kisgen, 2006. "Credit Ratings and Capital Structure," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 61(3), pages 1035-1072, 06.
- Boot, Arnoud W A & Thakor, Anjan V, 1993.
" Security Design,"
Journal of Finance,
American Finance Association, vol. 48(4), pages 1349-78, September.
- Francis A. Longstaff & Sanjay Mithal & Eric Neis, 2005.
"Corporate Yield Spreads: Default Risk or Liquidity? New Evidence from the Credit Default Swap Market,"
Journal of Finance,
American Finance Association, vol. 60(5), pages 2213-2253, October.
- Francis A. Longstaff & Sanjay Mithal & Eric Neis, 2004. "Corporate Yield Spreads: Default Risk or Liquidity? New Evidence from the Credit-Default Swap Market," NBER Working Papers 10418, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Christina E. Bannier & Marcel Tyrell, 2005. "Modelling the role of credit rating agencies - Do they spark off a virtuous circle?," Working Paper Series: Finance and Accounting 160, Department of Finance, Goethe University Frankfurt am Main.
- Güntay, Levent & Hackbarth, Dirk, 2010. "Corporate bond credit spreads and forecast dispersion," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(10), pages 2328-2345, October.
- Cantor, Richard & Packer, Frank, 1997. "Differences of opinion and selection bias in the credit rating industry," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 21(10), pages 1395-1417, October.
- Donald P. Morgan, 2002. "Rating Banks: Risk and Uncertainty in an Opaque Industry," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 92(4), pages 874-888, September.
- Winnie P. H. Poon & Michael Firth, 2005. "Are Unsolicited Credit Ratings Lower? International Evidence From Bank Ratings," Journal of Business Finance & Accounting, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 32(9-10), pages 1741-1771.
- John Y. Campbell & Glen B. Taksler, 2003.
"Equity Volatility and Corporate Bond Yields,"
Journal of Finance,
American Finance Association, vol. 58(6), pages 2321-2350, December.
- John Y. Campbell & Glen B. Taksler, 2002. "Equity Volatility and Corporate Bond Yields," Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers 1945, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
- Campbell, John & Taksler, Glen, 2003. "Equity Volatility and Corporate Bond Yields," Scholarly Articles 3153307, Harvard University Department of Economics.
- John Y. Campbell & Glen B. Taksler, 2002. "Equity Volatility and Corporate Bond Yields," NBER Working Papers 8961, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Vasiliki Skreta & Laura Veldkamp, 2009.
"Ratings Shopping and Asset Complexity: A Theory of Ratings Inflation,"
NBER Working Papers
14761, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Skreta, Vasiliki & Veldkamp, Laura, 2009. "Ratings shopping and asset complexity: A theory of ratings inflation," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 56(5), pages 678-695, July.
- Vasiliki Skreta & Laura Veldkamp, 2008. "Ratings Shopping and Asset Complexity: A Theory of Ratings Inflation," Working Papers 08-28, New York University, Leonard N. Stern School of Business, Department of Economics.
- Doron Kliger & Oded Sarig, .
"The Information Value of Bond Ratings,"
Rodney L. White Center for Financial Research Working Papers
13-97, Wharton School Rodney L. White Center for Financial Research.
- Kisgen, Darren J., 2009. "Do Firms Target Credit Ratings or Leverage Levels?," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 44(06), pages 1323-1344, December.
- Michaely, Roni & Womack, Kent L, 1999. "Conflict of Interest and the Credibility of Underwriter Analyst Recommendations," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 12(4), pages 653-86.
- Klein, Benjamin & Leffler, Keith B, 1981. "The Role of Market Forces in Assuring Contractual Performance," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 89(4), pages 615-41, August.
- Mark A. Carlson & Galina B. Hale, 2005.
"Courage to Capital? A Model of the Effects of Rating Agencies on Sovereign Debt Role-over,"
Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers
1506, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
- Bo Becker & Todd Milbourn, 2008. "Reputation and competition: evidence from the credit rating industry," Harvard Business School Working Papers 09-051, Harvard Business School, revised Sep 2010.
- Gorton, Gary & Pennacchi, George, 1990. " Financial Intermediaries and Liquidity Creation," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 45(1), pages 49-71, March.
- Shin, Yoon S. & Moore, William T., 2003. "Explaining credit rating differences between Japanese and U.S. agencies," Review of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 12(4), pages 327-344.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ysm:somwrk:amz2394. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: ()
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.