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Determinants of Income Growth in U.S. Metropolitan and Non-metropolitan Labor Markets

  • George W. Hammond

    (Bureau of Business and Economic Research, West Virginia University)

  • Eric Thompson

    (Department of Economics and Bureau of Business Research, University of Nebraska)

This research analyzes determinants of growth across U.S. labor market regions,using a production function approach based on four inputs: labor, manufacturing investment, human capital investment, and public capital investment. We find significant differences in the relative influence of growth determinants between metropolitan and non-metropolitan regions during the 1969-1999 period. We find little role for public capital investment in either metropolitan or non-metropolitan regions, but that manufacturing investment tended to spur growth in non-metropolitan regions, in contrast to results for metropolitan regions. We find that human capital matters for both metropolitan and non-metropolitan regions, but that increased human capital investment in metropolitan regions may have a larger impact on growth than in non-metropolitan regions. Further, the presence of more colleges and universities, more household amenities, and lower tax rates were all found to encourage human capital accumulation in U.S. labor market areas.

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File URL: http://www.be.wvu.edu/phd_economics/pdf/06-12.pdf
File Function: First version, 2006
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Paper provided by Department of Economics, West Virginia University in its series Working Papers with number 06-12 Classification- JEL: O40, R11.

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Length: 35 pages
Date of creation: 2006
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:wvu:wpaper:06-12
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Web page: http://www.be.wvu.edu/phd_economics/Email:


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  1. George Hammond, 2006. "A time series analysis of U.S. metropolitan and non-metropolitan income divergence," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer, vol. 40(1), pages 81-94, March.
  2. Edward L. Glaeser & Jose A. Scheinkman & Andrei Shleifer, 1995. "Economic Growth in a Cross-Section of Cities," NBER Working Papers 5013, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  3. George Hammond, 2004. "Metropolitan/non-metropolitan divergence: A spatial Markov chain approach," Economics of Governance, Springer, vol. 83(3), pages 543-563, 07.
  4. Rauch James E., 1993. "Productivity Gains from Geographic Concentration of Human Capital: Evidence from the Cities," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(3), pages 380-400, November.
  5. Chandra, Amitabh & Thompson, Eric, 2000. "Does public infrastructure affect economic activity?: Evidence from the rural interstate highway system," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(4), pages 457-490, July.
  6. Baumol, William J, 1986. "Productivity Growth, Convergence, and Welfare: What the Long-run Data Show," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 76(5), pages 1072-85, December.
  7. Quah, Danny, 1993. " Galton's Fallacy and Tests of the Convergence Hypothesis," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 95(4), pages 427-43, December.
  8. Winford H. Masanjala & Chris Papageorgiou, 2004. "The Solow model with CES technology: nonlinearities and parameter heterogeneity," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 19(2), pages 171-201.
  9. Steven C. Deller & Martin Shields & David Tomberlin, 1996. "Price Differentials And Trends In State Income Levels: A Research Note," The Review of Regional Studies, Southern Regional Science Association, vol. 26(1), pages 99-113, Summer.
  10. Gerald Carlino & Leonard Mills, 1994. "Convergence and the U.S states: a time series analysis," Working Papers 94-13, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia.
  11. Simon, Curtis J., 1998. "Human Capital and Metropolitan Employment Growth," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 43(2), pages 223-243, March.
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