Performance Measurement with Loss Aversion
We examine a simple measure of portfolio performance based on prospect theory, which captures not only risk and return but also reflects differential aversion to upside and downside risk. The measure we propose is a ratio of gains to losses, with the gains and losses weighted (if desired) to reflect risk-aversion for gains and risk-seeking for losses. It can also be interpreted as the weighted ratio of the value of a call option to a put option, with the benchmark as the exercise price. When applying the loss-aversion performance measure to closed-end funds, we find that it gives significantly different rankings from those of conventional measures (such as the Sharpe ratio, Jensen's alpha, the Sortino ratio, and the Higher Moment measure), and gives the expected signs for the odd and even moments of tracking errors. However, loss-aversion performance is not more closely related to discounts on funds than are the conventional performance measures, so we have not found evidence that loss-aversion attracts investors to particular funds in the short-term.
(This abstract was borrowed from another version of this item.)
|Date of creation:||2005|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: Coventry, CV4 7AL|
Phone: +44 (0)24 76524118
Fax: +44 (0)24 76524167
Web page: http://web.warwick.ac.uk/fac/soc/financeRepec/
More information through EDIRC
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Zweig, Martin E, 1973. "An Investor Expectations Stock Price Predictive Model Using Closed-End Fund Premiums," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 28(1), pages 67-78, March.
- Richard H. Thaler & Eric J. Johnson, 1990. "Gambling with the House Money and Trying to Break Even: The Effects of Prior Outcomes on Risky Choice," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 36(6), pages 643-660, June.
- Kahneman, Daniel & Tversky, Amos, 1979.
"Prospect Theory: An Analysis of Decision under Risk,"
Econometric Society, vol. 47(2), pages 263-291, March.
- Amos Tversky & Daniel Kahneman, 1979. "Prospect Theory: An Analysis of Decision under Risk," Levine's Working Paper Archive 7656, David K. Levine.
- Peter J. Knez & Zhiwu Chen, 1998.
"Portfolio Performance Measurement: Theory and Applications,"
Yale School of Management Working Papers
ysm48, Yale School of Management.
- Chen, Zhiwu & Knez, Peter J, 1996. "Portfolio Performance Measurement: Theory and Applications," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 9(2), pages 511-555.
- William F. Sharpe, 1965. "Mutual Fund Performance," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 39, pages 119-119.
- Grinblatt, Mark & Titman, Sheridan, 1994. "A Study of Monthly Mutual Fund Returns and Performance Evaluation Techniques," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 29(03), pages 419-444, September.
- Mark Grinblatt & Sheridan Titman, "undated". "Portfolio Performance Evaluation: Old Issues and New Insights," Rodney L. White Center for Financial Research Working Papers 22-88, Wharton School Rodney L. White Center for Financial Research.
- Lee, Charles & Shleifer, Andrei & Thaler, Richard H., 1991.
"Investor Sentiment and the Closed-End Fund Puzzle,"
27693394, Harvard University Department of Economics.
- Fielding, David & Stracca, Livio, 2007.
"Myopic loss aversion, disappointment aversion, and the equity premium puzzle,"
Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization,
Elsevier, vol. 64(2), pages 250-268, October.
- Fielding, David & Stracca, Livio, 2003. "Myopic loss aversion, disappointment aversion, and the equity premium puzzle," Working Paper Series 0203, European Central Bank.
- Glosten, L. R. & Jagannathan, R., 1994.
"A contingent claim approach to performance evaluation,"
Journal of Empirical Finance,
Elsevier, vol. 1(2), pages 133-160, January.
- Lawrence R. Glosten & Ravi Jagannathan, 1993. "A contingent claim approach to performance evaluation," Staff Report 159, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.
- Philippe Artzner & Freddy Delbaen & Jean-Marc Eber & David Heath, 1999. "Coherent Measures of Risk," Mathematical Finance, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 9(3), pages 203-228.
- Connor, Gregory & Korajczyk, Robert A., 1986. "Performance measurement with the arbitrage pricing theory : A new framework for analysis," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 15(3), pages 373-394, March.
- Chay, J. B. & Trzcinka, Charles A., 1999.
"Managerial performance and the cross-sectional pricing of closed-end funds,"
Journal of Financial Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 52(3), pages 379-408, June.
- J.B. Chay & Charles Trzcinka, 1997. "Managerial Performance and the Cross-Sectional Pricing of Closed-End Funds," New York University, Leonard N. Stern School Finance Department Working Paper Seires 96-20, New York University, Leonard N. Stern School of Business-.
- Cumby, Robert E & Glen, Jack D, 1990. " Evaluating the Performance of International Mutual Funds," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 45(2), pages 497-521, June.
- J. Bradford De Long & Andrei Shleifer & Lawrence H. Summers & Robert J. Waldmann, 1989.
"Positive Feedback Investment Strategies and Destabilizing Rational Speculation,"
NBER Working Papers
2880, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- De Long, J Bradford, et al, 1990. " Positive Feedback Investment Strategies and Destabilizing Rational Speculation," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 45(2), pages 379-395, June.
- De Long, J. Bradford & Shleifer, Andrei & Summers, Lawrence H. & Waldmann, Robert J., 1990. "Positive Feedback Investment Strategies and Destabilizing Rational Speculation," Scholarly Articles 27693805, Harvard University Department of Economics.
- Gul, Faruk, 1991. "A Theory of Disappointment Aversion," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 59(3), pages 667-686, May.
- Neilson, William S & Stowe, Jill, 2002. "A Further Examination of Cumulative Prospect Theory Parameterizations," Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, Springer, vol. 24(1), pages 31-46, January.
- Tversky, Amos & Kahneman, Daniel, 1992. "Advances in Prospect Theory: Cumulative Representation of Uncertainty," Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, Springer, vol. 5(4), pages 297-323, October.
- Nicholas Barberis & Ming Huang & Tano Santos, 2001. "Prospect Theory and Asset Prices," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 116(1), pages 1-53.
- Carhart, Mark M, 1997. " On Persistence in Mutual Fund Performance," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 52(1), pages 57-82, March.
- Rudolf, Markus & Wolter, Hans-Jurgen & Zimmermann, Heinz, 1999. "A linear model for tracking error minimization," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 23(1), pages 85-103, January.
- Shlomo Benartzi & Richard H. Thaler, 1995.
"Myopic Loss Aversion and the Equity Premium Puzzle,"
The Quarterly Journal of Economics,
Oxford University Press, vol. 110(1), pages 73-92.
- Shlomo Benartzi & Richard H. Thaler, 1993. "Myopic Loss Aversion and the Equity Premium Puzzle," NBER Working Papers 4369, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Fishburn, Peter C, 1977. "Mean-Risk Analysis with Risk Associated with Below-Target Returns," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 67(2), pages 116-126, March.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wbs:wpaper:wp05-16. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Rong Leng)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.